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BILLETS, system of quartering of troops in private households. In St. Petersburg billeting was practised from the very foundation of the city until 1906, resorted to due to an absence or lack of barracks


BLACKOUT. Intentional power cuts throughout the city at night during times of war in an effort to prevent aerial attacks. The blackout system was introduced in Leningrad in December 1939, and lasted till March 1940

Bombings of 1941-44

BOMBINGS OF 1941-44. Raids by the German Luftwaffe against Leningrad, meant to destroy industrial, military and civilian targets during the Siege of 1941-44. The first air raid on the city occurred on 23 June 1941; in the period from 6 September

Botik of Peter the Great

BOTIK OF PETER THE GREAT, botik (little boat) named “The St. Nicholas,” constructed in England in the 1640s, had belonged to the grandfather of Tsar Peter the Great, boyar N.I. Romanov

Breaking of the Siege (1943)

BREAKING OF THE SIEGE 1943, 12 - 30 January, an offensive operation, code named "Iskra" (Sparkle), along the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts by Baltic Fleet forces in the region of the Schlisselburg-Sinyavino heights

Bruce R.V. (1668-1720), commandant o Peter and Paul Fortress

BRUCE Roman Villimovich (1668-1720, St. Petersburg), statesman and military officer, Lieutenant General (1718?). Son of a Scottish emigrant, brother of Y. V. Bruce

Bruce Y.V. (1670-1735), warlord, statesman

BRUCE Yakov Villimovich (James Daniel) (1670-1735), count (1721), state and war figure, general field marshal (1726). Brother of R.V. Bruce, close friend of Emperor Peter the Great's

Butakov G.I. (1820-1882), Admiral

BUTAKOV Grigory Ivanovich (1820-82, St. Petersburg), Admiral (1878), creator of the steam armoured fleet tactics. Graduated from the Naval Cadet School (1836; now 47 Lieutenant Schmidt Embankment; memorial plaque)

Cadet Corps (entry)

CADET CORPS were military educational secondary boarding schools. Until 1917, they were aimed mainly at the nobility. The education began in cadet corps from the ages of 10-12 (in the 1770s-90s, from 5-8), and lasted seven to fifteen years

Carrousels (merry-go-rounds)

CARROUSELS (MERRY-GO-ROUNDS), 1) popular amusement, device for riding at open-air festivites (also known as a “wheeling machine”). In St. Petersburg they were organised from the early 18th century on

Cavalier Guards Regiment

CAVALIER GUARDS REGIMENT, Guards Cuirassier Regiment, formed in St. Petersburg on 11 January 1800 from the Cavalier Guards Corps, which existed intermittently from 1724 through 1797

Cavalry Life Guards Regiment

CAVALRY LIFE GUARDS REGIMENT, cavalry guard regiment, formed in 1730 as Cavalry Guards out of the Kronschlott Dragoon Regiment, whose history dates back to 1706. From the 1780s, known as Cavalry Life Guards Regiment

Centrobalt (Baltic Fleet Central Committee)

CENTROBALT (Baltic Fleet Central Committee), elected body, set up on 28-30 April (11-13 May).1917 in Helsingfors (Baltic Fleet headquarters). The first membership of Centrobalt included 33 people; the chairman was Bolshevik P.E. Dybenko

Chasseur Life Guards Regiment

CHASSEUR LIFE GUARDS REGIMENT, infantry guards regiment. Formed in 1796 as a battalion, in 1806 deployed into a regiment. Participated in the Napoleonic Wars of 1805, 1806-07, 1812-14, wars with Turkey 1828-29, 1877-78

Chichagov V.Y.(1728-1809) Admiral

CHICHAGOV Vasily Yakovlevich (1728-1809, St. Petersburg), Admiral. Graduated from the School of Mathematics and Navigational Sciences (1742), completed an internship in the British Navy, from 1745 served in the Baltic Fleet

Cleaning of Leningrad in the Spring of 1942

CLEANING OF LENINGRAD IN THE SPRING OF 1942. Measures taken in spring 1942 to clean the city of corpses and sewage that remained under the snow throughout the winter of 1941-42

Combined Infantry of His Imperial Majesty’s Own Regiment

COMBINED INFANTRY OF HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S OWN REGIMENT, originates to the combined company, which guarded emperor Alexander II during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. In March 1881 in St

Commandant's Department (Ordonansgaus)

COMMANDANT'S DEPARTMENT (Ordonansgaus) (3 Sadovaya Street), architectural monument of late classicism, constructed in 1824-26 (architect А.А. Mikhailov, second project of K.I. Rossi)

Commandants of Peter and Paul Fortress

COMMANDANTS OF PETER AND PAUL FORTRESS, military officials, in charge of Ss. Peter-and-Paul Fortress, and garrisons and establishments located on its territory

Communist Battalions

COMMUNIST BATTALIONS. Special subunits of the People's Volunteer Militia, formed as an emergency measure in Leningrad in 1941 - early 1942 on the initiative of local parties

Cossack Life Guards Regiment

COSSACK LIFE GUARDS REGIMENT, regiment of guards cavalry, recruited from the Don Cossacks. Formed in 1795 out of the Don and Chuguev Court Cossack Companies (set up in 1775) and the Gatchina Cossack Regiment (set up in 1793) as the Hussar Cossack

Cruys К.I. (1657-1727), Admiral

CRUYS Kornely Ivanovich (Kornelius) (1657-1727, St. Petersburg), associate of Emperor Peter the Great, one of the founders of the Russian fleet, Admiral (1721), a Dane

Cuirassier Life Guards His Majesty’s Regiment

CUIRASSIER LIFE GUARDS HIS MAJESTY’S REGIMENT, Cavalry Guards Regiment, raised in 1702 as the Dragoon Prince Grigory Volkonsky’s Regiment, from 1708 Yaroslavsky Dragoon Regiment

Defence Constructions of 1941-43

DEFENCE CONSTRUCTION OF 1941-43. Mass defence construction across Leningrad and the Leningrad Region was conducted throughout the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 by civilians (mainly women

Dragoon Life Guards Regiment

DRAGOON LIFE GUARDS REGIMENT, Cavalry Guards Regiment, raised on 3.4.1814 in Versailles near Paris as a Horse Chasseur Regiment, on 30 April 1814 was designated the Horse Chasseur Life Guards Regiment and was granted the privileges of the New Guards

Drozd V.P.(1906-1943) Vice Admiral

DROZD Valentin Petrovich (1906-1943), Soviet military commander, Vice Admiral (1941). Graduated from Frunze Military Naval Academy (1928). In 1938-40, served as commander of the Northern Fleet


DUEL (single combat, satisfaction), singe combat of two individuals with the same weapons (epee, sabre, pistol, rarely - others) and in fair conditions, held according to definite rules in the presence of witnesses (seconds) from both parties at the

Dybenko P.E. (1889-1939), revolutionary, statesman

DYBENKO Pavel Efimovich (1889-1938), Soviet military officer and party figure. Army commander of the second rank (1935). In 1911 he was conscripted into the Baltic Fleet

Essen N.O. (1860-1915), Admiral

ESSEN Nikolay Ottovich (1860-1915) Admiral (1913). Graduated with honours from the Naval Cadet School (1880) and completed the admiralty course of the Nikolaevskaya Naval Academy (1891)

Evacuation of 1941-43

EVACUATION OF 1941-43. The relocation of people, equipment and capital from Leningrad during the Siege, conducted according to regulations set by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) and the Soviet of People's

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