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Rubricator / / City Topography / Nature and Natural Phenomena

CLIMATE of St. Petersburg is defined by its geographic location as a transitional point from a marine to continental climate. It retains a relatively high air humidity throughout the year, with a mild


FLOODS. Raises of water over 160 centimetres above the zero-level of Kronstadt Tide-gauge or over 150 centimetres above the zero water level of the Neva River (the water post is located near the Mining Institute)

Geological location

GEOLOGICAL LOCATION. St. Petersburg along with its outskirts is located on the convergence of two major tectonic structures: the southern Baltic Plate and the Northwest Russiаn Plate of the East European plain

Hydrographic network

HYDROGRAPHIC NETWORK. The hydrographic system of the precincts of St. Petersburg is formed by nearly 20,000 water flows, practically all of them pertaining to the Neva River basin. The total length of the currents exceeds 100,000 kilometres


LANDSCAPES. The territory of St. Petersburg and its suburbs display an ample diversity though belonging to the north-west Taiga landscape province of the Russian Plain. There are 13 basic landscape types (or landscape regions)

Natural sights

NATURAL SIGHTS, natural formations, typical of certain processes and phenomena and as a rule specific within surrounding scenery; they can be divided into geological, geomorphological, botanic, hydrological sights etc


RELIEF. Despite having a general plain character, its flatness and large built up areas, the relief of St. Petersburg is diverse and full of contrasts. The highest peaks in the southwest of the city reach 176 meters


SOILS, topsoils and subsoils have retained their original composition outside city residential areas, and partly transformed in the city's gardens and parks. The soil cover of St

Underground Waters

UNDERGROUND WATERS. St. Petersburg is located in the northwestern part of Moskovsky artesian basin. The water content of the crystalline rocks relate to the residuum and zones where they meet


VEGETATION. St. Petersburg is situated in the Southern Taiga subzone characterised by a dominance of coniferous forests with grass and shrub formations. Prior to active human settlement the Neva Lowland and the coast of the Gulf of Finland were

White Nights

WHITE NIGHTS, the name of a natural phenomenon connected with the high geographic latitude of the region, the city is situated at latitude of 59.5 degrees north


WILDLIFE. The St. Petersburg region’s fauna includes about 60 mammal species, up to 250 bird species, a considerable number of amphibians and reptilians, as well as plentiful invertebrates such as worms, insects, etc