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Essen P.K., governor-general in 1830-42

ESSEN (v. Essen) Peter Kirillovich (1772-1844, St. Petersburg), count (1833), statesman and combat leader, infantry general (1819). In 1777 he was registered in the Guards, took part in the Russo-Swedish war of 1788-91, Swiss campaign of 1799-1800

Estonian Church of St. John the Baptist

ESTONIAN CHURCH OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, located at 54 Dekabristov St., is an architectural monument. The church was erected in 1859-63 (architect K.K. Ziegler, after the project design by G.A


ESTONIANS, an ethnic community forming a part of the St. Petersburg population. The Estonian language refers to Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic languages. Believers practice Lutheranism. The first Estonians (retired soldiers) settled in St

Euler L., (1707-1783), mathematician

EULER Leonard (1707-83), mathematician, mechanical engineer, and physicist. A native of Switzerland, he studied at Basel University. Invited to the Petersburg Academy of Sciences, where he worked as a scientific assistant from 1726

European University, St. Petersburg

EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY (3 Gagarinskaya Street) is a non-state institution of post-graduate education in post-graduate programme in the sphere of social sciences and humanities

Evacuation of 1941-43

EVACUATION OF 1941-43. The relocation of people, equipment and capital from Leningrad during the Siege, conducted according to regulations set by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) and the Soviet of People's

Evacuations of 1812, 1854-55, 1917

EVACUATIONS OF 1812, 1854-55, 1917. Organised removal of state establishments and state valuables from St. Petersburg during the wars with Napoleonic France due to a fear of the enemy's capturing the city

Evdokimov N.A. (1909-1938), pilot, parachutist

EVDOKIMOV Nikolay Alexandrovich (1909-1938), pilot, parachutist, captain (1937). Graduated from the Aviation School (1930). Served in the 1st Special Operations Squadron in Gatchina. Was the first man in Russia to perform a delayed drop (22.5

Evdokimov S.I. (1911-1972), architect.

EVDOKIMOV Sergey Ivanovich (1911, St. Peterburg - 1972, Leningrad), architect, architect emeritus of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1970). He graduated from the Leningrad College of Engineering and Urban Planning (1934)

Evenings of Contemporary Music, musical society

EVENINGS OF CONTEMPORARY MUSIC, musical society, existed between 1901 and 1912, aimed to perform and popularise European and Russian chamber music from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

Evreinov N.N., (1879-1953), director

EVREINOV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1879-1953), playwright, director, theorist, theatre historian. Lived in St. Petersburg in 1892-1925. Graduated from the School of Law (1901), mastered composition under N.A

Exchange Committee

EXCHANGE COMMITTEE, a permanent body of the Exchange Society and one of the first representative bodies of the bourgeoisie. Founded under the auspices of St. Petersburg Exchange in 1816


EXCHANGES, regular wholesale markets where goods or securities are sold are called commodity exchanges and stock exchanges, respectively. The first Russian exchange, which remained the only exchange till the late 18th century

Executive Committee of Leningrad Soviet of Working People’s Deputies

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF LENINGRAD SOVIET OF WORKING PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES, the highest organ of executive authority on the territory of Leningrad in 1941-91. It dates back to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet [elected on February 27 (March

Extirpation Battalions

EXTIRPATION BATTALIONS, volunteer force units (from 50 to 300 people) organised by the People's Commissariat of Home Affairs (NKVD) of the USSR. The units were established during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 to provide internal security

Ezhegodnik Obshchestva Arkhitektorov-khudozhnikov (The Yearbook of the Imperial Society of Architect

EZHEGODNIK OBSHCHESTVA ARKHITEKTOROV-KHUDOZHNIKOV (The Yearbook of the Imperial Society of Architects/Artists), was published by the Society of Architects and Artists in 1906-16 (the last edition, no. 12 was released in 1927)

Ezhemesyachnye Sochineniya, k polze i uveseleniyu sluzhashchie, (Monthly Entertainment for benefit a

EZHEMESYACHNYE SOCHINENIYA, k polze i uveseleniyu sluzhashchie, (Monthly Entertainment for benefit and amusement) Russia's first monthly popular scientific and literary journal, published by the Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1755-64

Faberge Company

FABERGE COMPANY is a jewelry company, founded in 1842 by Gustav Faberge, master of diamond business (1814-94). The Company was located at Bolshaya Morskaya Street; before 1854 at No.11; in 1854-1900 at No.16; and from 1900 – at No

Factories and Plants' Committees

FACTORIES AND PLANTS' COMMITTEES, elected bodies of workers and employees' for self management. Emerged after the February Revolution of 1917, in contrast to trade unions

Factories of Musical Instruments

FACTORIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. The musical instruments industry sprang up in St. Petersburg in the early 18th century and there were as many as 17 factories of musical instruments in the early 20th century

Factory of Eccentricity

FACTORY OF ECCENTRICITY (FEKS), the creative association, existed in Petrograd (Leningrad) in 1922-26. The aesthetic programme of the Factory of Eccentricity stood close to the ideas of the Leftist Arts Front and V. E. Meyerhold’s and V. V

Falconet E. M., (1716-1791), sculptor

FALCONET Etienne Maurice (1716-1791), sculptor. He studied sculpture under J. B. Le Moin in Paris in 1734-44. He was the director of the Sevres Porcelain Factory in 1757-66

Famine of 1941-42

FAMINE of 1941-42, one of the most tragic events in the history of St. Petersburg. The famine occurred during the Siege of 1941-44. Leningrad did not have enough food reserves before the war, and had for some time been supplied from outside the city

Famintsyn A.S., (1835-1918), botanist

FAMINTSYN Andrey Sergeevich (1835-1918), plant physiologist, member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1884) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (1917). In 1857 he graduated from the University of St

Farforovskaya Street

FARFOROVSKAYA STREET, a street running from Obukhovskoy Oborony Avenue to Sedova Street. Laid out in the second half of the 19th century and given the name Bolshaya Shchemilovka Street after the cognominal Shchemilovka township

Farmakon Factory

FARMAKON (18 Tsvetochnaya Street) is an open joint-stock company (from 1992), the largest producer of pharmaceuticals in the region. It was established in 1907 as a factory of pharmaceutical and chemical products, Farmakon joint-stock company

Favorsky А.Е., (1860-1945), chemist

FAVORSKY Alexey Evgrafovich (1860-1945), chemist, member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929), Hero of Socialist Labour (1945). He graduated from the department of natural science of the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of St

February Revolution of 1917

FEBRUARY REVOLUTION OF 1917 is the Second Russian Revolution, which dethroned the Monarchy. Decisive events developed in Petrograd. On 23 February (8 March) 1917

Fedin K.A. (1892-1977), writer

FEDIN Konstantin Alexandrovich (1892-1977), writer, fellow of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1958), hero of Socialist Labour (1967). He studied at Moscow Commercial Institute (1911-14, without receiving a degree)

Fedorov S. P., (1869-1936), surgeon-urologist

FEDOROV Sergey Petrovich (1869-1936, Leningrad), surgeon-urologist, Doctor of Medicine (1895), court surgeon (1913). Fedorov graduated from the Faculty of Medicine of Moscow University (1881)