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Rubricator / / Army. Navy / Blokade
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2nd Strike Army

2ND STRIKE ARMY, an armed forces unit of the USSR. Formed in December 1941 along the Volkhov Front for offensive action, to break through the Siege of Leningrad. In January – July 1942, during the Lyuban Offensive, it was encircled and defeated

8th Army

8th ARMY. An armed forces unit of the USSR. Formed in October 1939 as a part of the Leningrad Air Defence Force. On 22 June 1941, it was located on the frontier along the Neman River, and included the 10th and 11th Infantry corps

23rd Army

23RD ARMY. Formed in May 1941 in Leningrad, consisting of the 19th and 50th Infantry corps, the 10th Mechanics Corps, the 27th and 28th Regional reinforcements and other units and detachments

42nd Army

42ND ARMY. An armed forces unit of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. Formed in August 1941 on the Leningrad Front. Comprised of the 2nd and 3rd Guards divisions of the People's Volunteer Militia, the 6th Marine Brigade

55th Army

55TH ARMY. An armed forces unit of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. Formed in late August 1941 on the Leningrad Front to defend enemy approaches to Leningrad from the south (in the regions of Pavlovsk, Kolpino

Air Defence (PVO)

AIR DEFENCE (PVO), a series of measures and units to protect the city from air raids. Not long after the USSR Air Defence System was created in the 1930s, the Leningrad Air Defence Force was formed

Air-Raid Shelters of 1941-44

AIR-RAID SHELTERS. Specially equipped structures protecting the city's population against enemy bombardment and air raids. On the eve of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, Leningrad had few air-raid shelters, which were intended primarily for Party

Anti-aircraft balloons

ANTI-AIRCRAFT BALOONS, unmanned aerial vehicles, hydrogen-filled canvas spheres, used as antiaircraft defence in June-November 1941 and from February 1942. The balloons were launched during an air raid, reaching as high as 100-250 m

Artillery Bombardments of 1941-44

ARTILLERY BOMBARDMENTS OF 1941-44, conducted by long-range German artillery in order to destroy Leningrad's industrial and military facilities, and to spread panic among its population during the siege of 1941-1944

Badaev Storage

BADAEV STORAGE, supply stores named after A.E. Badaev (5 Kievskaya Street), a number of wooden storage houses built in 1914 by the first-guild merchant Rasteryaev on an area of 27 hectares

Battle for Leningrad, 1941-44

BATTLE FOR LENINGRAD, military operations defending Leningrad against German and Finnish troops in 1941-44 during the Great Patriotic War. The battle started on 10 July 1941, when German troops approached the line of the rivers Narva, Luga


BLACKOUT. Intentional power cuts throughout the city at night during times of war in an effort to prevent aerial attacks. The blackout system was introduced in Leningrad in December 1939, and lasted till March 1940

Bombings of 1941-44

BOMBINGS OF 1941-44. Raids by the German Luftwaffe against Leningrad, meant to destroy industrial, military and civilian targets during the Siege of 1941-44. The first air raid on the city occurred on 23 June 1941; in the period from 6 September

Breaking of the Siege (1943)

BREAKING OF THE SIEGE 1943, 12 - 30 January, an offensive operation, code named "Iskra" (Sparkle), along the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts by Baltic Fleet forces in the region of the Schlisselburg-Sinyavino heights

Cleaning of Leningrad in the Spring of 1942

CLEANING OF LENINGRAD IN THE SPRING OF 1942. Measures taken in spring 1942 to clean the city of corpses and sewage that remained under the snow throughout the winter of 1941-42

Communist Battalions

COMMUNIST BATTALIONS. Special subunits of the People's Volunteer Militia, formed as an emergency measure in Leningrad in 1941 - early 1942 on the initiative of local parties

Defence Constructions of 1941-43

DEFENCE CONSTRUCTION OF 1941-43. Mass defence construction across Leningrad and the Leningrad Region was conducted throughout the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 by civilians (mainly women

Evacuation of 1941-43

EVACUATION OF 1941-43. The relocation of people, equipment and capital from Leningrad during the Siege, conducted according to regulations set by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) and the Soviet of People's

Extirpation Battalions

EXTIRPATION BATTALIONS, volunteer force units (from 50 to 300 people) organised by the People's Commissariat of Home Affairs (NKVD) of the USSR. The units were established during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 to provide internal security

Famine of 1941-42

FAMINE of 1941-42, one of the most tragic events in the history of St. Petersburg. The famine occurred during the Siege of 1941-44. Leningrad did not have enough food reserves before the war, and had for some time been supplied from outside the city

Food Ration Norms

FOOD RATION NORMS fixed on 18 July 1941, at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, together with the introduction of ration cards. Sale norms were standardised for bread, grains, pasta, meat and meat products, fish, oil

Fortifications, Regional

REGIONAL FORTIFICATIONS. (1) Units of the armed forces, including permanent defence constructions on certain territories and troops assigned to defend them. In 1932-39

Internal Defence Belt

INTERNAL DEFENCE BELT, a series of defence constructions. Built in spring - autumn 1942, from the Seaport, to Avtovo, to Volodarsky Village, to Kupchino Station

Izhora Battalion

IZHORA BATTALION, a volunteer subunit formed in Kolpino in September 1941 as a separate battalion of Izhora workers, gathered on the basis of previously organized detachments, which mainly consisted of workers form the Izhorsky Factory

Labour Battalions

LABOUR BATTALIONS, internal security units, formed in Leningrad and its suburbs in August 1941, according to an initiative by the City Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks); the battalions were made up of people not subject to

Ladoga Military Flotilla

LADOGA MILITARY FLOTILLA, a unit of the USSR Navy formed in October 1939 to participate in the Soviet-Finnish War. In November 1940, it was reorganized into a training detachment. In June 1941 the Navy unit was re-formed

Leningrad Front

LENINGRAD FRONT. Joint USSR armed forces during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 fighting against German and Finnish troops in Leningrad Region and in Estonia

Leningrad Headquarters for Partisan Operations

LENINGRAD HEADQUARTERS FOR PARTISAN OPERATIONS. Established on 27 September 1941 under the Leningrad Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks), headed by M. N. Nikitin, Secretary of the Regional Committee)

Lifting of the Siege, 1944

LIFTING THE SIEGE. Part of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45; the complete liquidation and annihilation of all military threats to Leningrad, and the restoration of normal functioning of city communications

Luzhsky Line

LUZHSKY LINE. A system of defence constructions along the banks of the Luga River, Mshaga River, and Shelon River, up to the Ilmen Lake. The Luzhsky Line was constructed by residents from Leningrad and its region in July 1941 to hold back German

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