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Old Believers

OLD BELIEVERS, a sect within the Orthodox Church consisting of those people who rejected the reforms of Patriarch Nikon in the middle of the 17th century and preserved the "old" ceremonies and traditions. Old Believers began settling in St

Old Peterhof

OLD PETERHOF, the name of a part of Petrodvorets west of the Angliisky Park; also a railway station along the Saint Petersburg-Lomonosov line. In the 1970-80s, an academic training facility and one of Saint Petersburg State University's campuses

Old Petersburg, Society

OLD PETERSBURG, history research society, founded in 1921 by the members of the Pavlovsk Study Seminar. Its Board (chaired by architect L.A. Ilyin) consisted of Alexander N. Benois, P.P. Veyner, V.P. Zubov (headmaster of Art History institute), V.Y

Oldenburg S.F., (1863-1934), orientalist

Oldenburg Sergey Fedorovich (1863-1934, Leningrad), orientalist and scientific organiser, public figure, member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (from 1900). He moved to St. Petersburg in 1881

Oldenburgsky Family

OLDENBURGSKY (v. Oldenburg), dukes and princes, the junior branch of a German landed estate. Several members of the family lived in Russia. George Ludwig Prince of Schleswig-Holstein (died 1763), Emperor Peter III"s uncle

Olderogge D.A., (1903-1987), ethnographer

OLDEROGGE Dmitry Alexeevich (1903-1987, Leningrad), ethnographer, Associate of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1960). He was brought to St. Petersburg in the age of three

Olenin A.N., (1763/64-1843), Historian, Artist, Statesman

OLENIN Alexey Nikolaevich (1763 or 1764-1843, St. Petersburg) statesman, archaeologist, philologist, graphic artist, member of the Russian Academy (1786), honorary member of the Academy of Arts (1804), president of the Academy of Arts (1817-43)

Oleynikov N.M. (1898-1937), writer

OLEYNIKOV Nikolay Makarovich (pen-names Makar Svirepy, Nikolay Makarov, Sergey Kravtsov) (1898-1937, Leningrad), writer, journalist. Studied at Kamensk Teachers College. Took part in the Civil War. From 1925 lived in Leningrad

Olgino, settlement

OLGINO, a summer cottage village 15 kilometres northwest of Saint Petersburg, on the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, in the vicinity of a cognominal railway platform

Olympia, the Garden

OLYMPIA, is a garden in the centre of St. Petersburg, on Moskovsky Avenue, between Klinsky Avenue, Malodetskoselsky Avenue and Bataisky Lane. The total area of Olimpiya is 2.7 hectares. It was laid out on the location of Klinsky Market in 1946-47


OMNIBUS (lat. omnibus - for all), a multi-seater horse-powered vehicle, the first public city route of trackless transportation. First omnibuses started operating in the summer of 1830, running from St

Opekushin A.M., (1838-1923), sculptor

Opekushin Alexander Mikhailovich (1838-1923), sculptor. Studied at the Drawing School of the Society of Art Promotion and in the workshop of sculptor D.I. Jensen. Was a full member of Academy of Arts (1895)

Opening of the Neva River for Navigation

OPENING OF THE NEVA RIVER FOR NAVIGATION, an official holiday from the beginning of the 18th - beginning of the 20th century, celebrating the Neva's clearing from ice and the beginning of the Neva Shipping


OPOYaZ (the Society for Studying Poetic Language), one of the trends of the formal school of literary criticism. The history of OPOYaZ started from the publication of the brochure by V. B. Shklovsky Resurrection of the Word (1914)

Oppel V. A., (1872 - 1932), surgeon

OPPEL Vladimir Andreevich (1872, St. Petersburg - 1932, Leningrad), surgeon, Doctor of Medicine (1899). He graduated from the Military Medical Academy (1896), and taught there, becoming a professor in 1907

Optical Telegraph

OPTICAL TELEGRAPH, semaphore telegraph, a visual system of message transfer, using conventional signs (semaphore alphabet, light signals, visible at night as well) given within direct visibility. The St

Oranienbaum Bridgehead

ORANIENBAUM BRIDGEHEAD (Primorsky Bridgehead), a territory along the shore of the Gulf of Finland, from the Voronka River to Peterhof (about 65 km long and 25 km deep)

Oranienbaum, palace and park ensemble

ORANIENBAUM, a palace and park ensemble (Lomonosov town) that started to form during the first quarter of the 18th century, when the country estate of A.D. Menshikov appeared on the coast of the Gulf of Finland 44 kilometres from St. Petersburg

Oranienbaum, Park Museum

ORANIENBAUM, PARK MUSEUM, state in the town of Lomonosov, was established in 1918 in the territory of the palace and park ensemble of the same name. Oranienbaum was opened to visitors in 1922. The museum got its present-day name in 1993

Orbeli I.A., (1887-1961), orientalist

ORBELI Iosif Abgarovich (1887-1961, Leningrad), orientalist, member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1935), member and the first president of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1943). Brother of L.A. Orbeli

Orbeli L.A., (1882-1958), physiologist

ORBELI Leon (Levon) Abgarovich (1882-1958), physiologist, member (1935) and vice-president (1942-46) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, member of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1943)


ORGNABOR, organized hiring of workers to industrial enterprises. The orgnabor was launched by the resolution of TsIK (Central Executive Committee) and SNK (Soviet of People's Commissars) of the USSR On “otkhodnichestvo” issued on June 30, 1931

Orlenev Pavel Nikolaevich (1869-1932), actor

ORLENEV (real last name Orlov) Pavel Nikolaevich (1869-1932), actor, People's Artist of the Republic (1926). He studied at the Moscow Imperial Theatre School (1885-86; undergraduate)

Orlov Family

ORLOV FAMILY, nobles, counts and princes, known since the 17th century. Brothers Grigory, Vladimir, Alexey and Fedor Orlov took an active part in the take-over of 28 June 1762

Orlovsky B.I., (1796-1837), sculptor

ORLOVSKY (real name Smirnov) Boris Ivanovich (1796-1837), sculptor, adherent of Classicism. Born into a family of serfs. From 1809 studied in Moscow under S.P. Campioni, and from 1817 in St. Petersburg under A. Triscorni

Orlovsky E.S. (1929 - 2003), human rights activist

ORLOVSKY Ernest Semenovich (1929, Leningrad - 2003, St. Petersburg) was a human rights activist. He graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics of Leningrad State University (1952)

Orlovsky Park (Strelna)

ORLOVSKY PARK is a landscape park following English traditions. It was laid out in the first half of the 19th century (architect P. S. Sadovnikov) in the estate of Count A. F. Orlov in Strelna

Orphanages (entry)

ORPHANAGE for children, charitable educational institutions established in 1837-1917, offering 24-hour or day only shelter and primary education for poor children from 3 to 10 years of age

Osinovaya Roshcha (Aspen Grove)

OSINOVAYA ROSHCHA (Aspen Grove), a former settlement north of Pargolovo at the junction of the Vyborgskoe and Priozerskoe Highways. First records of Osinovaya Roshcha trace back to the late18th century

Osinovaya Roshcha, the Park

OSINOVAYA ROSHCHA (Aspen Grove) is a park in the village of the same name. It is located two kilometres to the north-east of Levashovo Railway Station. Osinovaya Roshcha is an architectural landscape monument of the end of the 18th - beginning of

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