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Entries / Menshikov A.D. (1672/73-1729), governor general

Menshikov A.D. (1672/73-1729), governor general

Categories / City Administration/Personalia
Categories / Army. Navy/Personalia

MENSHIKOV Alexander Danilovich (1672 or 1673-1729), count (1702), Serene High Prince of Izhora (1707), a statesman and a military leader, Generalissimo (1727). Once a friend of the young Tsar Peter the Great's, later becoming his closest associate. In 1702, Menshikov took part in the taking of Noteburg, and then was appointed its Commandant. In May 1703, he participated in the Siege of Nyen, and in the capture of two Swedish vessels at the mouth of the Neva; he also took part in the foundation of St. Petersburg and was the first Governor of the St. Petersburg (St. Peter and Paul) Fortress, Governor of St. Petersburg, and Governor General of Ingria (Ingermanland). In 1703-04, he personally directed the building of the fortress (one of its bastions was later named after Menshikov) and the Kronslot Fort. In 1704, he prevented a Swedish squadron led by General Meydel from reaching St. Petersburg. In 1705-14, he was a part of the army, and from 1714 was in charge of the development and organization of city life. When the Chief Police Chancellery was established in 1718, he continued to be a figure-head for city affairs. When Peter the Great died, Menshikov assisted Catherine I with her accession to the throne; in 1725-27, he was the de facto ruler of Russia. Menshikov's Residence on Vasilievsky Island (see Menshikov Palace) held receptions for foreign ambassadors, court ceremonies and court events. In 1726-27, Emperor Peter II occupied the palace, as well as Menshikov's summer residence, Oranienbaum. In 1727, the courtier fell into disgrace, was deprived of all his honours and property, and banished to the town of Berezov, where he died. In 1903, Menshikov's name was given to Menshikovsky Avenue in the area of the Piskarevka Railway Station. Busts of Menshikov have been set up in Kolpino, in the public garden on the left bank of the Izhora River (1997, sculptor A.S. Charkin), and in St. Petersburg, in front of the Menshikov Palace (2002, sculptor M.T. Litovchenko).

References: Павленко Н. И. Меншиков. 6-е изд. М., 2001.

G. V. Kalashnikov.

Catherine I, Empress
Charkin Albert Serafimovich
Litovchenko Maria Timofeevna
Meidel Georg Iohann, Baron
Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, Gracious Prince
Peter I, Emperor
Peter II, Emperor

Menshikovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city

Павленко Н. И. Меншиков. 6-е изд. М., 2001

The subject Index
Shlisselburg Fortress.
St. Peter and Paul fortress
Central Police Office
Menshikov Palace