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Entries / City Administration (entry)

City Administration (entry)

Categories / City Administration/Government Bodies

CITY ADMINISTRATION. The system of City Administration in St. Petersburg from the beginning of the 18th century developed in 2 directions - the city government and self-government (see City self-government). From 1703 the city was governed by A. D. Menshikov, Governor-General of Ingermanland (who later became the Governor of St. Petersburg), who supervised the Chancery of the region. In 1713 certain powers were delegated to the Office of City Affairs set up in the same year. The first organ of the City administration was the Police Office headed by Chief Policeman (see Police). The police was nominally under the jurisdiction of the Office of City Affairs and the Senate, but in fact it received the status of an independent state organ with significant powers. The control over legal procedures was provided by the provincial public prosecutor. Church affairs were under the supervision of the Spiritual Consistory. In 1782 the Board of Decency was created. In the course of reforms of the 1860-70s police, organs of the city self-government, and the court system were re-established, the provincial self-government was formed; crown-appointed courts were set up (Circuit court and Court Chamber, Military District Court) and courts of peace were elected. The jury court was also created. In 1866 the board of Security was set up, followed in 1871 by the city administration with the city administrator at the head. After the February Revolution of 1917 the Central Duma became the organ of city administration, the national militia was created instead of the dissolved police. At the same time Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers' Deputies (Petrosoviet) and district councils continued functioning. After October 1917 the Petrograd Soviet became the highest authority in the city (it was housed in the Taurida Palace, later in Smolny). In 1918 some powers were delegated to Petrograd Labour Commune and Soviet Of People’s Commissars. In 1919 the Petrograd Soviet was recreated (in 1924 it became Leningrad Soviet), militia was under the supervision of the local department (later - of the administration) of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs. The highest body of power was the Regional Committee of the Russian Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) [later - the Local Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) - Communist Party of the Soviet Union] which was in fact in head of all other organs of city administration. In 1931 the Department of City Economy of the Leningrad Soviet was divided into specialized boards (transport, sewerage, road and bridge management, etc.). In 1931 the Leningrad Soviet became an independent body of authority (in 1939 it was renamed Leningrad City Soviet of Worker’s Deputies). In the period of the Great Patriotic war of 1941-45 City Government was effected by the Military Council of the Leningrad Front. The Military Council had a specially appointed group of officials, known as The Group of Four, which was provided the authority of the Executive Committee of the Leningrad Soviet. In 1944 the powers were returned to the Executive Committee (from 1945 the Executive Committee was housed in Marriinsky Palace). After the victory of the block "Democratic Elections’90" in the elections of 1990 the structure of city administration was completely reorganised, and the Party organs lost their power. In 1991 the Leningrad City Executive Committee was abolished, and city affairs were transferred to the jurisdiction of city and district administrations. In 1992-96 the Administration of St. Petersburg was headed by the Mayor of St. Petersburg (whose residence was in Smolny), since 1996 the administration has been led by the governor of St. Petersburg. Since 1994 the system of state authority of St. Petersburg consists of the Legislative Assembly (in Marrinsky Palace), Administration of St. Petersburg, sectoral and local executive organs of state power. Judicial bodies include Charter Court and Justices of Peace. Administration of St. Petersburg and the Legislative Assembly form the united vertical line of power: decisions of the Legislative Assembly must be approved by the Governor and may be challenged by the deputies of the Legislative Assembly. In the conditions of multi-party system political parties do not participate in the work of the Legislative Assembly. Bodies of the Interior deal exclusively within their area of competence.

Y. N. Kruzhnov, N. Y. Cherepenina.

Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, Gracious Prince

Ерошкин Н. П. История государственных учреждений дореволюционной России. 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. М., 1983
История России в XIX веке: В 2 т. М., 2001
Высшие органы государственной власти и управления России, IX-XX вв.: Справ. СПб., 200

The subject Index
City Self-Government
District Court
February Revolution of 1917
Tauride Palace
Smolny Architectural Ensemble
Leningrad Soviet
Leningrad Front
Mariinsky Palace
Legislative Assembly

Residency Provision Supply Board

RESIDENCY PROVISION SUPPLY BOARD, an administrative committee in charge of apartments and other units pertaining to the police, agency of State administration. It was founded according to the Regulations for the capital city St