Возврат на главную страницу Возврат на главную страницу Возврат на главную страницу Возврат на главную страницу Возврат на главную страницу
Entries / Pavlovsk, Palace and Park Ensemble

Pavlovsk, Palace and Park Ensemble

Categories / City Topography/Green Areas/Parks
Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Architectural Ensembles

PAVLOVSK, the palace and park ensemble in the town Pavlovsk, is one of the biggest landscape parks in Europe. Its total area is 600 hectares. In 1777, the estate located here was presented by Empress Catherine II to her son Prince Pavel Pavlovich on the occasion of the birth of his first-born son Grand Prince Alexander Pavlovich, hence the name of the park. The fortress Bip (architect V. Brenna) was erected and the park Mariental was laid out on the Tyzva River in 1795-97. Pavlovsk belonged to Empress Maria Fedorovna in 1801-28. Later Pavlovsk belonged to Grand Prince Mikhail Pavlovich. Pavlovsk belonged to Grand Prince Konstantin Nikolaevich and to his son Grand Prince Konstantin Konstantinovich from 1849. The Grand Palace in Peterhof (1782-86, architect C. Cameron; was rebuilt in 1786-99, architect Brenna) is located on the high bank of the Slavyanka River. It consists of the central wing crowned with a cupola and two wings connected by half-circular two-storied galleries forming the gala yard. The throne room was arranged in the southern wing. The palace church of St. Mary Magdalene is located behind the throne room. Gala rooms of the ground floor were decorated by architect J. Quarenghi at the beginning of the 1800s. Apartments of the central wing were restored and the rooms on the ground floor of the southern semi-circle were redesigned by architect A. N. Voronikhin after a fire in 1803. Furniture and decorations were made for the palace according to the drafts by Voronikhin. Artist P. Gonzaga executed frescoes creating an illusionary appearance of the internal capacity of the building. Gonzaga also completed the loggia on the western wall of the semi-circular wing (Gallery of Gonzaga). The library was built above the loggia in 1822-24 (architect K. I. Rossi). In 1843-44, architect Stakenschneider made several changes in the interiors. In 1855-58, architect I. Y. Potolov worked in the palace. He constructed cast-iron balconies, sheds and staircases. In 1872, the monument to Pavel I was opened in the centre of the gala yard. The monument was made from chrome according to the original by sculptor I. P. Vitali. The Egyptian Vestibule with a staircase is the central feature of the ground floor. There are entrances to the central domical Italian hall and to the suite of rooms along the perimeter of the main wing with the study, library, Greek Hall with a colonnade made of artificial marble, and the symmetric halls of War and the Peace etc. One can approach the Throne room, the gallery of ancient sculpture and to the church through a small passage studies in the southern half-circle of the building. The images for the iconostasis of the church were pained by artist G. Kades. There are two suites of rooms on the ground floor: the northern suite with the ball room and other apartments used for unofficial receptions and the southern suite with private apartments. There are masterpieces of the art of interior among the private apartments: the Lantern Study with the exit to the Private Garden, the Pilaster Study etc. The establishment of the park started in the 1780s. Landscape sections of the valley of the Slavyanka River and of the Big Star with alleys radiating from the ground with the Round Hall (1800, architect Cameron, gardener A. Wiesler), the standard Private Garden near the palace (artist A. F. Viollier; the pavilion Three Graces with sculptures by P. Trescornia 1801-03, architect Cameron). In 1799-1800, regular parts of the park were designed according to the projects by Brenna: Big Circles; Old Silviya with 12 Paths and Bronze Sculptures of Apollo, Muses and Children of Niobe (the 1790s, sculptors F. G. Gordeev, P. P. Sokolov, masters E. Gastecloux, V. Mozhalov); New Silviya with the column End of the World (1783, architect Cameron, first it was located at the end of the triple alley of lindens, was carried in 1800). Vast landscape sections were arranged in 1801-28 (artist Gonzaga) - the Valley of Lakes, the Red Valley, the Gala Field, the White Birch. The Collonade of Apollo (1783; was rebuilt in 1799, although partially collapsed in 1817), the Cool Bath with the Bridge of Centaurs (1795-99) with the Family Grove; the Temple of Friendship (1782) shaped as a rotunda on the peninsula with a cast-iron bridge (1823, architect Rossi); the Milk House assembled of boulders (1782); the Monuments to Parents in Old Silviya (1786) are among numerous park constructions designed according to the projects by Cameron. The mausoleum To Husband Benefactor (1808-09, architect J. F. Thoma de Thomon) is located in New Silviya. Viskontyev Bridge (1803, architect Voronikhin) and the Pil Tower with a bridge (1797, architect Brenna, artist Gonzaga) are located in the valley of the Slavyanka River. The pavilion Open-Air Cage (1782, architect Cameron); the monument to Empress Maria Fedorovna (1914, sculptor V. A. Beklemishev, architect K. K. Schmidt; half-rotunda according to the sketch by Rossi) are located near the triple alley of lindens leading from the palace to the Gala Field. There is wooden Rose Pavilion on the boundary of the White Tree. The Rose Pavilion was designed in 1811-12 by architect Voronikhin. The Rose Pavilion was erected as a summer retreat for Prince P. I. Bagration. In 1814, it was rebuilt for the reception arranged on the occasion of the return of Emperor Alexander I to Russia after the victory over Emperor Napoleon. There is Krasnodolinny Pavilion (1804, architect Cameron, artist Gonzaga) with a grotto and a ruined bridge in the north of the park. Pavlovsk was transformed into the Palace-Museum in 1918. Pavlovsk suffered serious damage in 1941-44. The restoration works started in 1944 (architects F. F. Oleynik, S. V. Popova-Gunich et al.). The palace was completely restored in 1957-70. In 1993, the Rose Pavilion which had been burnt down during the war was renewed in brick.

References: Зеленова А. И. Павловский парк. 6-е изд., испр. и доп. Л., 1964; Ее же. Дворец в Павловске. 2-е изд., испр. и доп. Л., 1986; Павловск: Дворец и парк / Сост. А. М. Кучумов, М. А. Величко. Л., 1976; Павловск. Дворцово-парковый ансамбль. Л., 1989; Несин В. Н., Сауткина Г. Н. Павловск императорский и великокняжеский, 1777-1917. СПб., 1996; Масси С. Павловск: Жизнь рус. дворца. 3-е изд. СПб., 1997; Павловск: Императорский дворец: Страницы истории / Сост. Ю. В. Мудров. СПб., 1997.

A. A. Alexeev.

Abaza Alexander Aggeevich
Alexander I, Emperor
Bagration Peter Ivanovich, Duke
Beklemishev Vladimir Alexandrovich
Brenna Vikenty Franzevich (Vicenzo)
Cameron Charles
Catherine II, Empress
Gastecloux E.
Gonzaga Pietro di Gottardo (Peter Fedorovich)
Gordeev Fedor Gordeevich
Kades G.
Konstantin Konstantinovich, Grand Prince
Konstantin Nikolaevich, Grand Prince
Maria Fedorovna, Empress
Martos Ivan Petrovich
Mikhail Pavlovich, Grand Prince
Mozhalov V.
Oleynik Fedor Fedorovich
Paul (Pavel) I, Emperor
Popova-Gunich Sofia Vladimirovna
Potolov I.Y.
Quarenghi Giacomo
Rossi Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni)
Schmidt Karl Karlovich
Sokolov Pavel Petrovich
Stakensсhneider Andrey Ivanovich
Thomas de Thomon Jean-Francois
Triscorni Paolo
Viollier Henri-Francois-Gabriel
Vitali Ivan Petrovich
Voronikhin Andrey Nikiforovich
Wiesler A.

Зеленова А. И. Дворец в Павловске. 2-е изд., испр. и доп. Л., 1986
Зеленова А. И. Павловский парк. 6-е изд., испр. и доп. Л., 1964
Масси С. Павловск: Жизнь рус. дворца. 3-е изд. СПб., 1997
Павловск: Императорский дворец: Страницы истории / Сост. Ю. В. Мудров. СПб., 1997