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Entries / Catherine Park (Pushkin town), ensemble

Catherine Park (Pushkin town), ensemble

Categories / City Topography/Green Areas/Parks
Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Architectural Ensembles
Categories / Tsarskoe Selo and town of Pushkin. The digital chronological reference book/Monuments of history and culture

CATHERINE PARK (Pushkin town), a monument of landscape architecture and the central part of Tsarskoe Selo palace ensemble. Its consists of a total of 107 hectares The park consists of a grassed and a landscape areas, divided by the Great Pond, formed by damming the Vangazia Brook. The regular Old Park (1717-20s, garden masters Y. Roozen and I. Focht) was laid out on artificial terraces to the north of the pond. There are parterre lawns and flower gardens on the upper terrace near the Catherine park, two small ponds on the next one, and on the lower terrace there are bosquets between the three divergent alley ways, leading to Rybny Canal, behind which, in the so-called Wild Grove, the Hermitage pavilion is situated (1744-54, architect M.G. Zemtsov , F. Rastrelli). The Grotto (Morning Hall) is located on the bank of the pond (1749-61, architect Rastrelli). There are marble sculptures and busts of the early 18th century on the park's paths (masters A. Tarsia, P. Baratta, et al.). Pavilions of the Upper and the Lower Baths were constructed in classical style on the terraces of the garden by projects of architect I.V. Neelov (see the Neelov family) in the late 1770s, and the Hermitage kitchen in the Pseudo-Gothic style at the Wild Grove entrance. The practice of tree trimming was ceased under Empress Catherine II, and the garden lost its regular character. The landscape part of the Catherine Park (1762-96, garden masters J. Bush, T. Ilyin, architect V.I. Neelov) was laid out around the Great Pond, the geometric outlines of which were changed to fit the landscape style, and the following artificial islands were made: the Great Island (with a hall on it, 1794, architect G. Quarenghi), Wild Island, Stone Island, and Rabbit Island. Artificial Cascading Ponds were connected with the Great Pond. Admiralty complex (1773-77, architect V.I. Neelov) is situated on the east bank of the Great Pond. The Column of Morea (1771), Kagul Obelisk (1771-72) and Chesme Column (1774-76) were erected in honour of victories in the Russo-Turkish Wars of the second half of the 18th century in the landscape part of the park by projects of architect A. Rinaldi. In the south part of the Catherine Park the Tower Ruin with a rampart of packed earth (1771-73), the Gothic Gates (1777-80, architect Y.M. Velten), and Gatchina (Orlov) Gates (1777-78, architect Rinaldi). Nearby, located beyond the park boundary, the Crimea Column is situated (1777-85, sculptor G.I. Kozlov). Swan pools with weirs and cascades are located to the southwest of the Great Pond, behind Sibirsky (Palladiev) Bridge (1772-74, architect V. I. Neelov). The Pyramid with a cemetery for dogs of the royal court with Water Laborinth near it are in the same part of the park. In the western part of the Catherine park there is the Ramp Alley and the Granite Terrace (1809, architect L. Rusca), on which copies of Antique sculptures were installed in the 1850s (master A. Hamburger). A path leads down from the terrace to the Milk Maid fountain (1816, engineer A.A. Bethencourt; female statue - sculptor P.P. Sokolov). To the west of the Ramp Alley there are the Upper Ponds, with the Concert Hall on an island with the Kitchen Ruins (1782-88, architect Quarenghi) and the Evening Hall pavilion (1796, architect I.V. Neelov, 1810-11, architect Rusca). the Catherine Park is separated from the Chinese Village by Podkapriznaya Road. In the 19th century the Catherine Park was enriched with: gates "For My Dear Colleagues" (1817, architect V.P. Stasov), the Turkish Baths (the 1850s, architect I.A. Monighetti), the Personal Garden was laid out with marble pergola and a fountain (1865, architect A.F. Vidov). The Regular design of the Old Garden was restored in the 1960-70s (architect N.E. Tumanova).

Reference: see Tsarskoe Selo entry.

A. A. Alexeev.

Baratta Pietro
Bethencourt Avgustin Avgustinovich
Bush Joseph (John)
Catherine II, Empress
Felten Yury (Georg Friedrich) Matveevich
Foсht I.
Hamburger I.A.
Ilyin T.
Kozlov Grigory Mikhailovich
Monighetti Ippolito Antonovich
Neelov Ilya Vasilievich
Neelov Vasily Ivanovich
Quarenghi Giacomo
Rastrelli Francesco de
Rinaldi Antonio
Roozen Yan
Rusca Luigi (Aloisy Ivanovich)
Sokolov Pavel Petrovich
Stasov Vasily Petrovich
Tarsia Antonio
Tumanova Natalia Evgenievna
Vidov Alexander Fomich
Zemtsov Mikhail Grigorievich

см. при ст. Царское Село

The subject Index
China-village (Pushkin)