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Entries / Peterhof, palace and park ensemble

Peterhof, palace and park ensemble

Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Architectural Ensembles
Categories / City Topography/Green Areas/Parks

PETERHOF, the palace and park ensemble in Petrodvorets. Until 1917, remained a summer imperial residence on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The construction of Peterhof started in 1709 at the command of Tsar Peter the Great. In 1714-25, the Monplaisir Palace was built on the coast of the gulf. In 1715, the construction of the fountains of the Grand Cascade was launched on the northern slope of the coastal terrace and in the Lower Park. In 1716-25, the "upland" Grand Palace was built by architects J.B. Le Blond, N. Michetti and J.F. Braunstein. In 1745-55, it was reconstructed and extended according to the designs of architect F. Rastrelli: the length of the hall reached 270 m, facades and interiors acquired elegant Baroque decor (Merchants' Staircase, Dance Hall), the study of Peter the Great with carved oak panels (engraver N. Pinot) was preserved. In the 1760s, interiors of the palace were partially redesigned by architect J.B. Vallin de la Mothe ("Study of Fashions and Graces" with 328 portraits by P. Rotari, "Chinese Studies"), in 1770s - architect Y.M. Felten (White Throne Hall, Chesme Hall), in the 1840s - architect A.I. Stakensсhneider (the "part" of Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna). To the south of the Grand Palace, the regular Upper Garden with five ponds, fountains, statutes and trellis pergola pavilions (1734-38, architects I.Y. Blank, I. Davydov) was laid out in 1714-24. In 1798-99, architect F.P. Brouer designed the Neptune Fountain executed by Nuerenberg masters (1652-60). In 1779-90, the landscape English park with a pond, dams and bridges was laid out on the site of the former menagerie in the west part of Peterhof following the project of G. Quarenghi. In 1781-96, English Palace in the style of strict Classicism and pavilion-surprise "Birchen House" appeared (completely destroyed in 1941-44). In 1826-32, the Alexandria Park was laid out, in 1832-36 the landscape Alexandriisky Park was also established (architects A.A. Menelas, I.I. Charlemagne, gardener P.I. Erler). In 1838-47, Kolonistsky Park (architect Stakensсhneider, gardener Erler) with Tsarina Pavilion and Olga Pavilion in the style of Italian Renaissance on the artificial islands of Olgin Pond was arranged, in 1825-57 the Lugovoy (Ozerkovy) Park (along the line of Sampsonievsky conduit, to the south of Peterhof at the direction of Baby Gon Hill) (architect Stakensсhneider, gardener Erler, engineer M.I. Pilsudsky) with the Ozerki Pavilion, the Belvedere Palace and the system of sluices, canals and ponds. The system of parks in the vicinity of Peterhof includes the manor and the farm with the park of the Oldenburgsky Princes and Grand Princes' estates: Mikhailovka, Znamenka, Private Dacha and Sergievka. The trial run of the first fountains was caried out on 9 August 1721, the solemn opening of Imperial residence was held on 15 August 1723. Among those rulers, who favoured Peterhof in particular were Empress Anna Ioannovna, Elizaveta Petrovna, Pavel I and Nicholas I. During the reign of the latter, the traditional festival of Peterhof on 1 July (the Name Day of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna) was established. In May 1918, palaces and parks of Peterhof were turned into museums. When the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 broke out, about 8,000 exhibit items were evacuated and 50 sculptures were buried in the ground. In the course of military operations, the Grand Palace was burnt down, the Grand Cascade was blown up, parks were cut down and trenches were dug, the ensemble on the whole suffered severe damage. The restoration project was worked out by architects A.E. Hessen, V.M. Savkov and E.V. Kazanskaya. On 14 September 1947, the Sampson Fountain (recreated by sculptor V.L. Simonov) started functioning; in 1954, the first halls of the Grand Palace (restoration work is still continuing) were opened for visitors. In the course of the Peterhof restoration, the school of Petersburg restorers was formed (sculptors E.P. Maslennikov, L.M. Shvetskaya, artists Y.A. Kazakov and L.A. Lyubimov, engraver B.K. Gerschelman et al.). Although, many constructions of the parks have not been restored yet. The grand opening of Peterhof fountains takes place on the last Sunday of May (with a trial on 9 May, Victory Day), fountains function up to the beginning of September. At the end of the season, the festival "The diamond fountains fly..." is celebrated. Since 1990, the palaces and parks of Peterhof forms a part of the artistic and architectural palace and park museum-reserve, that also includes the management of the Putevoy (Road) Palace of Peter I in Strelna.

References: Архипов Н. И., Раскин А. Г. Петродворец. Л.; М., 1961; Ардикуца В. Е. Петродворец: Ист.-краевед. очерк. Л., 1965; Памятники архитектуры пригородов Ленинграда. Л., 1983; Гейрот А. Ф. Описание Петергофа. Репр. воспр. изд. 1868 г. Л., 1991; Петергоф: Альм.: Из истории дворцов и коллекций. СПб., 1992; Вернова Н. В. Петергоф: Большой каскад. Петродворец, 1999; Раскин А. Г. Душа Петергофа: Фонтаны и каскады. СПб., 1999.

Y. M. Piryutko.

Anna Ioannovna, Empress
Blank Ivan (Jogann)Yakovlevich
Braunstein Johann Friedrich
Brouer Franz
Charlemagne Iosif Iosifovich
Davydov Ivan Petrovich
Elizaveta Petrovna, Empress
Erler P.I.
Felten Yury (Georg Friedrich) Matveevich
Gerschelman B.K.
Hessen Alexander Ernestovich
Kazakov Yakov Alexandrovich
Kazanskaya Evgenia Vladimirovna
Le Blond Jean-Baptiste Alexander
Lyubimov Leonid Alexandrovich
Maslennikov E.P.
Menelas Adam Adamovich
Michetti Niccolo
Nicholas I, Emperor
Olga Nikolaevna, Grand Princess
Paul (Pavel) I, Emperor
Peter I, Emperor
Pilsudsky M.I.
Pinot Nicolas
Quarenghi Giacomo
Rastrelli Francesco de
Rotari Pietro Antonio
Savkov Vasily Mitrofanovich
Shvetskaya L .M .
Simonov Vasily Lvovich
Stakensсhneider Andrey Ivanovich
the Oldenburgskys, princes
Vallin de la Mothe Jean Baptiste Michel

Peterhoff, town

Архипов Н. И., Раскин А. Г. Петродворец. Л.; М., 1961
Петергоф: Из истории дворцов и коллекций: Альм. СПб., 1992
Памятники архитектуры пригородов Ленинграда / А. Н. Петров и др. Л., 1983
Летопись возрождения: Востановление памятников архитектуры Ленинграда и пригородов, разрушенных в годы Великой Отеч. войны нем.-фашистскими захватчиками / А. А. Кедринский и др. Л., 1971

The subject Index
Mon Plaisir Palace (Peterhof)
Mikhailovka, manor
Znamenka, manor
Grand Cascade (Peterhof)