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Entries / Alexandria, palace and park ensemble (Peterhof)

Alexandria, palace and park ensemble (Peterhof)

Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Architectural Ensembles
Categories / City Topography/Green Areas/Parks

ALEXANDRIA, palace and park ensemble of Peterhof located to the east of the Lower Park and occupying a territory of 115 hectares. Since 1711, the estate of A.D. Menshikov "Mon Courage" with a palace (only his ruins have remained) was located; in the 1730s, the Menagerie was arranged so that Empress Anna Ivanovna could hunt. Later, the territory was used for gardens of Guard Regiments. In 1825-32, "Alexandria Private Residence of Her Majesty", named in honour of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna (wife of Emperor Nicholas I), was constructed. The landscape park was laid out in 1826-32 (architect A.A. Menelas, garden masters F. Wandelsdorf, P. Rodionov, P.I. Erler). Local species of trees and bushes (birch, fir, alder-tree, mountain ash, oak, linden, maple, ash, elm, viburnum, lilac, acacia, jasmine, etc.) were amplified with plants of Petersburg Botanical Garden and other places (Siberian larch, hawthorn, Dahurian birch, Kirghiz willow, Tyrolean buckthorn, etc.). The park has two levels formed by a natural ledge; on its territory, there is a system of hydraulic engineering constructions of the 18th-19th centuries. The palace and park ensemble encompasses the Cottage Palace (1826-29, architect Menelas; Dining-Hall - 1841-42, architect A.I. Stakensсhneider; restored for museum needs in 1960-70s, architect I.N. Benois) with service blocks, Farm Palace (1828-30, architect Menelas, reconstructed in 1838-59 by architect Stakensсhneider) with service wings, "Gothic Chapel" (St. Alexander Nevsky Church; 1831-34, architects K.F. Schinkel, Menelas, I.I. Charlemagne, sculptor V.I. Demut-Malinovsky; restored in 1972-98, architect E.P. Sevastyanov, A.G. Leontyev ), Ruin Bridge (1827-29, architect Menelas, mason I. Kopylov) and the obelisk "To the labourers and builders of Peterhof" (1840s, architect Stakensсhneider, moved from Sergievka). In the north-east part of the park, there are ruins of the Lower Summer Residence (1883-85, architect A.I. Tomishko), that served as a summer residence of Emperor Nicholas II. In Alexandria, Tsesarevitch Alexey Nikolaevich (1904-18) was born in the early 20th century, and in the late 20th century, a monument to him was unveiled (1994, sculptor V. V. Zayko). The ensemble of Alexandria was severely damaged during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. However, the major part of the Cottage Palace collection was evacuated, which allowed the creation of an authentic and historically accurate exposition after the end of the war.

References: Шеманский А. В. Александрия. Петергоф. Л., 1936; Бойцова Е. В. Александрия. Коттедж. Готическая капелла. СПб., 2000; see also references of the article on Peterhof.

V. A. Frolov.

Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress
Alexey Nikolaevich, Tsesarevitch
Anna Ioannovna, Empress
Benois Irina Nikolaevna
Charlemagne Iosif Iosifovich
Demut-Malinovsky Vasily Ivanovich
Erler P.I.
Frolov Vladimir Alexandrovich
Kopylov I.
Menelas Adam Adamovich
Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, Gracious Prince
Nicholas I, Emperor
Nicholas II, Emperor
Rodionov P.
Schinkel Karl Friedrich
Sevastyanov E.P.
Stakensсhneider Andrey Ivanovich
Tomishko (Tomishka) Antony Osipovich (Iosifovich)
Wandelsdorf F.
Zayko Viktor Vladimirovich

Шеманский А. В. Александрия. Петергоф. Л., 1936
см. также лит. при ст. Петергоф.
Бойцова Е.В. Александрия. Коттедж. Готическая капелла. СПб., 2000

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