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Entries / Reference and Standard Plans (entry)

Reference and Standard Plans (entry)

Categories / Architecture/Urban Planning

REFERENCE AND STANDARD PLANS. Used since St. Petersburg's first founding years to erect residential and service buildings. Because of a lack of materials, in the 1700s-10s, most cottages were from plastered bricks or logs. The first "models for cottages made of plastered brick or log", which were ordered to be copied to build "all remaining cottages for the local population", were laid by Tsar Peter the Great in 1711, near the Ioannovsky Bridge, and was intended to be a printing house. Soon, architect D. Trezzini designed facades and plans for one- and two-story houses built "on top of cellars", which were supposed to be erected along the embankments, on the most important streets (meant for the "nobility") and a few "other streets". A decree issued on 4 April 1714 stated that those who owned land on these designated sections should acquire plans from the architect to know "how to build their house" (houses could be made of brick, wood or of plastered brick or wood). In 1718, the typical Trezzini flourished, and buildings along the lines and embankments of Vasilievsky Island were created in their style. The method of connecting buildings of the same type was used for the first time in the erection of the Twelve Collegiums building. In the 1730s, the Commission for the Construction of St. Petersburg designed a number of standard facades for residential buildings, closely following perspective as described in the "plans by Saint-Hilaire" (1760s). The Commission for the Stone Construction of St. Petersburg and Moscow (1762-96) developed standard projects for buildings, and made decisions regarding architectural planning for the capital, provinces and local cities and towns. In the 1770s, drafts for "exemplary facades" were published. From the end of the 18th century, only standard models for "official buildings" were designed, including barracks, store-fronts, work-places, and educational institutions. An edition of five engraved albums, called A Collection of Facades for buildings in the Imperial Cities, included 224 designs for residential, economic, industrial and other buildings, as well as 60 examples of gates, fences and cabins. This led to the standardisation and repetition of characteristic buildings, such as guard regiment barracks, stores and granaries, and buildings in the towns of Sophia (Tsarskoe Selo), Kronstadt and at factories on the outskirts of the city. It is interesting to compare these standard forms with smaller-scale architecture and design from the 1770s-80s, particularly as used in the barrier fences at the Moika and Fountanka river embankments, as well as at the Catherine (Griboedova) Canal; and various mile poles, harbours and bridges.

References: Ожегов С. С. Типовое и повторное строительство в России в XVIII-XIХ веках. М., 1984.

Y. M. Piryutko.

Peter I, Emperor
Trezzini Domenico

Fontanka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city
Griboedova Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city

Ожегов С. С. Типовое и повторное строительство в России в XVIII-XIХ веках. М., 1984

The subject Index
Twelve Collegiums Building
Commission for St. Petersburg Construction