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Entries / Markets (general)

Markets (general)

Categories / Economy/Commerce

MARKETS. Markets, especially food markets, were very popular in Russia as early as before the time of Peter the Great. The first market appeared in St. Petersburg in 1705 on Troitskaya Square with hundreds of stalls, but no windows or ovens. After it burnt down in the summer of 1710, the market was transferred to the back of Gorodskoy Island, opposite Kronverk, and the history of Sytny Market, one of the oldest markets now existing in St. Petersburg, began at that point. The first flea market - the so-called Tatar Camp - was set up in the same place. Architect J. B. Leblond’s plan was to build a market in each part of the city. There were six markets operating by 1782, Bolshoy Morskoy Market being the largest of them, situated in the area of the present-day University of Economics and Finance. The market consisted of rows of stalls such as meat stalls, fish stalls, greengrocery stalls, candle and fat stalls, clothes stalls, flour stalls, hunting game stalls, and chicken stalls. The market burnt down in 1782 and was moved to the opposite side of Sadovaya Street on request of merchants. Apraksin Yard appeared at that time. Since a market was the only place where meat and fish trade was allowed as decreed on 28.6.1782, it was suggested that a market be built in each part of the city. New stores were erected at that time in the area next to Count M. F. Apraksin’s estates - the so-called Shchukin Yard - which passed to the public treasury as far back as 1777. A few markets appeared in St. Petersburg by the late 18th century such as Krugly, Nikolsky, and Sennoy. The latter was the most important of them, situated on Sennaya Square, where hay had been sold since the 1730s. Food trade was allowed on the market in 1785, though on market days only. It became the largest food market in the city by the early 19th century. The market was badly equipped, and goods were sold from carts and in stalls. It was not earlier than 1885 that four metal pavilions were erected here by architect I. S. Kitner. The market returned up to 160,000 roubles as rental payment. Krugly Market built by architect G. Quarenghi at 3 Moika Embankment in 1785-90 and rebuilt afterwards, was the most aristocratic market, food of the highest quality was sold and purchased here for the best restaurants of St. Petersburg, and representatives of upper society classes were among its customers. Nikolsky Market built by an unknown architect at 62 Sadovaya Street in 1788-89, which traded both in food and household goods, was also known as a private labour exchange for people wishing to find jobs of builders, street cleaners, servants, and daysmen in the city. The so-called Obzhorny (Glutton) Stalls for low strata of the society were moved here from Sennaya Square in the 1880s. Yamskoy Market, built by architect V. P. Stasov in Gryaznaya Street (today, Marata Street) and opened in 1818, specialised in meat sales and was therefore also called Myasnoy (Meat) Market. Alexandrovsky was the largest market of the city, built by architect A. K. Bruni at 44-46 Voznesensky Avenue in 1867 (not preserved). Emperor Alexander II who attended the opening ceremony permitted to give the market his name. The market consisted of almost 800 shopping buildings, as well as a local flea market, which moved here from Apraksin Yard. There were 15 municipal markets by the end of the 19th century, and five private markets were added to them in 1900-13. Alexandrov Central Market of St. Petersburg and Merchant Deryabkin’s market were the largest private markets, situated in Kronverksky Avenue and Maly Avenue of Peterburgskaya Storona, respectively. Over 95% of market premises were occupied by retailers and peddlers. Market trade was discontinued during the times of Civil War and War Communism, and the black market played the dominant role at the time. After the New Economic Policy was introduced, however, markets resumed their activities. Kuznechny Market was the first Soviet-built shopping building, constructed by architects S. O. Ovsyannikov and A. S. Pronin at 3 Kuznechny Lane in 1925-27. The statues of a worker and a peasant sculpted by V. F. Razumovsky rose above either side of the main entrance to illustrate “the ties between the city and the country”, a political slogan of that time. As market trade died away in the following years, markets that survived were called kolkhoz (collective farm) markets and specialised mainly in agricultural products. A number of large market buildings such as Kalininsky, Nekrasovsky, Nevsky, Moskovsky, Torzhkovsky, and Pravoberezhny were built after WWII. The so-called spontaneous markets became popular in the 1970-80s to trade in books, radio parts, and car spares; the government struggled against them in every possible way. The market trade system was the most appropriate way to eliminate the critical trade deficit during the economic reforms in the early 1990s. New markets and trading areas sprang up to accommodate thousands of small businesses and serve hundreds of thousands of lower income population. There were 88 markets and 343 areas of retail trade in the city and its suburbs in 2000.

Reference: Калугин В. К. Рынки Петербурга: Из истории рынков С.-Петербурга. Рынки и криминал. Адреса и телефоны всех рынков города... СПб., 2000.

V. G. Avdeev.

Alexander II, Emperor
Alexandrov Georgy Alexandrovich
Apraksin Matvey Fedorovich, Count
Bruni Alexander Konstantinovich
Deryabkin Pavel Semenovich
Kitner Ieronim Sevastianovich
Le Blond Jean-Baptiste Alexander
Ovsyannikov Sergey Osipovich (Iosifovich)
Pronin Arseny Semenovich
Quarenghi Giacomo
Razumovsky Vasily Flegontovich
Stasov Vasily Petrovich

Kronverksky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city
Kuznechny Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
Maly Ave of Petrogradskaya Storona/Saint Petersburg, city
Marata St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 53
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
Sadovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 62
Sadovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city
Sennaya Square/Saint Petersburg, city
Troitskaya Square/Saint Petersburg, city
Voznesensky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 44
Voznesensky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 46

Калугин В. К. Рынки Петербурга: Из истории рынков С.- Петербурга. Рынки и криминал. Адреса и телефоны всех рынков города... СПб., 2000

The subject Index
State University of Economics and Finances, St. Petersburg
Apraksin Yard


Bolshoy Avenue of Vasilievsky Island

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