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Entries / Pavlovsk, town

Pavlovsk, town

Categories / City Topography/Historical Geography/Towns within Greater St. Petersburg

PAVLOVSK, a town (from 1796), municipal unit, and the centre of the Pavlovsky District on the Slavyanka River. Known as Slutsk in 1918-44. As of 2002, the population count was approximately 16,000 inhabitants. First records of settlement along the Slavyanka River date back to the 13th century. In the mid-18th century, the villages of Linna and Kuznetsy stretched out along the same territory. On 12 December 1777, Empress Catherine II granted the land along the Slavyanka River to her son Grand Prince Pavel Petrovich (future Emperor Paul I), and is considered Pavlovsk's founding date (until 12 November 1796, the town was known as Pavlovskoe Village). In 1778, two small palaces were built, one for Pavel Petrovich (Paullust) and one for his wife Maria Fedorovna (Mariental). The road to Tsarskoe Selo became Pavlovsk's main street (today Revolyutsii Street). In 1783, architect C. Cameron almost completed construction of the Grand Palace; in 1784, architect G. Quarenghi finished St. Mary's Church with a hospital and alms-house (today 17 Revolyutsii Street). The "Bip" Fortress (architect V. Brenna), which until 1811 was part of the Military Department, was constructed in 1797. In 1803, A. N. Voronikhin was appointed Chief Architect of Pavlovsk, followed in 1815 by K. I. Rossi, who supervised and finalized the 10-year palace and garden construction project. In 1836, the first railway in Russia connecting Pavlovsk and Tsarskoe Selo was laid, first being pulled by animals and later using steam-power, and mainly functioned as a free amusement attraction. The Pavlovsky Vauxhall Pavilion was constructed and used both as a train terminal and a concert hall. On 30 October 1837, the first train brought passengers from Saint Petersburg to Pavlovsk. In 1874, a new section of the Tsarskoselskaya Railway was laid using the present gauge. Until 1917, Pavlovsk was the residence of Russian emperors and members of the imperial family, playing a strong role in the development of Russian culture as a sui generis Russian Parnas. Musicians and composers who held concerts and frequently visited Pavlovsk include V. А. Zhukovsky, I. А. Krylov, F. N. Glinka, N. М. Karamzin and J. Strauss (in 2003, a copy of a memorial monument to Strauss in Vienna was erected in Pavlovsk; 1907, sculptor E. Helker). In 1919, the surroundings of Pavlovsk saw battles between Red Army units and General N. N. Yudenich's troops (a common grave of Red Army men is located on the Parade Field). In 1918, Pavlovsk Palace became a museum and in the same year the town was renamed in honour of V. K. Slutskaya, a participant of the revolutionary movement (1874-1917). In the Fall of 1941, the town happened to become the centre of military operations, and from 16.9.1941 until 24.1.1944 Pavlovsk was occupied by the Germans. Its many architectural monuments, gardens and parks suffered serious damage under occupation, and Pavlovsk Palace burnt down. In 1944, the town was given back its historical name, in 1953 became part of Leningrad, and in 1957, after initial restoration, Pavlovsk Palace's first halls were opened to visitors (full restoration was completed by 1970). Presently, the town of Pavlovsk includes Leather and Small-Ware Factory, a Transport Engineering Training Centre, the House of War Veterans, a tuberculosis treatment dispensary, and a number of children's health centre. Original monuments that have survived to present day include the Nikolaevskie Gates (1826, architect K. I. Rossi), the St. Nicholas Church (1904, 1 Oborony Street, architect А. I. von Gogen), and the Pavlovsk Foundation Memorial Obelisk (1782, architect Cameron).

References: Розанов А. С. Музыкальный Павловск. Л., 1978; Кучумов А. М. Павловск: Путеводитель. Л., 1980; Януш Б. В. Неизвестный Павловск: Ист.-краевед. очерк: [В 2 ч.]. СПб., 1997-2002.

Е. А. Bondarchuk, P. Y. Yudin.

Brenna Vikenty Franzevich (Vicenzo)
Cameron Charles
Catherine II, Empress
Glinka Fedor Nikolaevich
Gogen Alexander Ivanovich von
Helker E.
Karamzin Nikolay Mikhailovich
Krylov Ivan Andreevich
Maria Fedorovna, Empress
Paul (Pavel) I, Emperor
Quarenghi Giacomo
Rossi Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni)
Slutskaya Vera Klementievna (Berta Bronislavovna)
Strauss Johann
Voronikhin Andrey Nikiforovich
Yudenich Nikolay Nikolaevich
Zhukovsky Vasily Andreevich

Oborony Street/Pavlovsk, town, house 1
Pavlovsk, town
Revolyutsii Street/Pavlovsk, town

Кучумов А. М. Павловск: Путеводитель. Л., 1980
Павловск: Дворцово-парковый ансамбль. Л., 1989
Януш Б. В. Неизвестный Павловск: Ист.-краевед. очерк: [В 2 ч.]. СПб., 1997-2002

The subject Index
Pavlovsk Vauxhall