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Entries / Peter I the Great (1672 - 1725), the Tsar (from 1682), the Emperor (from 1721).

Peter I the Great (1672 - 1725), the Tsar (from 1682), the Emperor (from 1721).

Categories / Tsarskoe Selo and town of Pushkin. The digital chronological reference book/Pushkin personality

Peter I the Great (1672–1725, SPb), the Tsar (from 1682), the Emperor (from 1721). He was a son of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in the second marriage (to N. К. Naryshkina). Peter I carried out the military reform (the Regular Army and Navy were created), the reform of the State administration, the tax reform ( taxation of a person was established, serfdom was strengthen). Peter I aspired to introduce the Western European civilization into Russia, he visited Europe with the Great Embassy in 1697-1698; he invited foreign specialists to work in Russia. Peter I was interested in sciences and advanced technology of his time, the Academy of Sciences was opened on Peter's initiative (in 1724). The Russian every day life was changed dramatically by Peter's reforms that were realized by means of harsh methods. During 1700-1721 Peter I led his army in the Northen War with Sweden, after that Russia returned the banks of the Neva River, the Baltic States, Sourth -East part of Finland (Vyborg). Peter I was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg. In 1703 Peter I founded the new city of Saint Petersburg in the delta of the Neva River. Peter I took part in the working out the city development plans, he planned to create a city-port, like Venice and Amsterdam, with many rivers and canals used for sailing and moving citizens. Under Peter I rule the first canals were built: Kronwerk tributary around the Peter and Paul Fortress (1706), the Kryukov canal between the Neva River and the Moika River (1717-19), the Winter Ditch (1718), the Swan Canal (1716), the Red Canal between the Moika and the Neva, later it was filled with earth (1711), the Ligovsky Canal, later it was filled with earth , canals on Vasilyevsky Island , the Admiralty Canal (1711-20). In 1718 the constructing of the Ladoga Canal was began along the South shore of Ladoga Lake from the Volkhov River to the Neva ( later the canal was named after Peter the Great, now it is named as the Old-Ladoga Canal) for the safe sailing of the cargo boats to Saint Petersburg. (Peter I inspected constructing the canal in the autumn of 1724). Fountains were constructed in the Summer Gardens and Peterhof (v. The Peterhof fountain system). Gutters strengthen by planks were used in streets of Saint Peresburg, the undeground wooden pipes were also used as drainage system. The brick manifold of the first quarter of the 18th cent., which was used as drainage system of adjacent territory, was found by archeologists during the archeological dig at the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island near the Twelve Collegiums Building during 2000-2002. Directives concerning the ban on polluting rivers and canals of Saint Peresburg (making rubbish dumps, sanding logs on banks of rivers, etc), concerning the navigation were issured under Peter I's rule. In 1718 responsibilities of the police were to observe the condition of gutters which conducted the water into rivers. Peter I organized the first measures for the defence of Saint Petersburg against floods. In 1715 Peter I ordered to measure regularly the water level in the Neva River, and in 1721 the supervision of technicians on the strenghtening of banks of the Big Neva River was organized. The first wooden embankments were built in the Petrogradsky Island (its name was Gorodskoy during the first third of the 18th cent. ) and in the left bank of the Neva River between the Main Admiralty and the Summer Gardens. The stone embankments were built near the Winter Ditch and on the territory of the Summer Gardens in 1718-1723.

Alexis I (Alexey Mikhailovich), Tsar
Naryshkina Natalia Kirillovna, Tsarina
Peter I, Emperor

Admiralteisky Canal/Saint Petersburg, city
Kryukov Canal/Saint Petersburg, city
Lebyazhya Kanavka/Saint Petersburg, city
Ligovsky Canal/Saint Petersburg, city
Neva River/Saint Petersburg, city
Peterhoff, town
Zimnaya Kanavka/Saint Petersburg, city

Анисимов Е. В. Юный град. Петербург времен Петра Великого. СПб., 2003
Луппов С. П. История строительства Петербурга в первой четверти XVIII века. М.; Л., 1957
Павленко Н. И. Петр Великий. М., 1998

The subject Index
Russian Academy of Sciences
SS. Peter and Paul Cathedral
St. Peter and Paul fortress
St. Peter and Paul fortress
Twelve Collegiums Building