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Entries / Alexandrinsky Theatre

Alexandrinsky Theatre

Categories / Art/Music, Theatre/Theaters, Concert Organizations

ALEXANDRINSKY THEATRE (2 Ostrovskogo Square), called Alexandrinsky Theatre 1832-1920, it was granted the status of Academic in 1919, and in 1920 named the Petrograd (Leningrad) State Academic Drama Theatre (Akdrama, Gosdrama). In 1937 it was named after Alexander Pushkin, and since 1991 has been the Russian State Academic Drama Theatre also named after Alexander Pushkin (Alexandrinsky Theatre). The theatre's history dates back to 1756 (see Russian Theatre for Tragedy and Comedy Performances) and to the decree of 1759, according to which the Russian Imperial Court Troupe was established (later it performed on the stages of the Imperial Theatres). Principal actors of the 18th - early 19th centuries included F.G. Volkov, I.A. Dmitrevsky, Y.D. Shumsky, T.M. Troepolskaya, P.A. Plavilshchikov, S.N. Sandunov, A.M. Krutitsky, Y.E. Shusherin, A.S. Yakovlev, V.F. Rykalov, E.S. Semenova, Y.G. Bryansky, V.A. Karatygin and I.I. Sosnitsky. Beginning in 1832, the Alexandrinsky Theatre, named in honour of Emperor Nicholas I' wife Alexandra Fedorovna, was the main stage of the Petersburg Imperial Drama Company. Originally, operas were staged along with theatre performances, and quite regularly a German troupe or guest actors would perform. In the 19th century Alexandrinsky Theatre Company boasted such actors as N.O. Dyur, V.N. Asenkova, V.V. Samoylov, A.E. Martynov, V.V. Samoylova, P.V. Vasilyev, V.V. Strelskaya, N.F. Sazonov, M.G. Savina, K.A. Varlamov, V.N. Davydov, P.A. Strepetova, R.B. Apollonsky, V.P. Dalmatov, M.I. Pisarev, V.A. Michurina-Samoilova, M.V. Dalsky, Y.M. Yuryev, V.F. Komissarzhevskaya, and N.N. Khodotov. A great respect for the stage was always a characteristic feature of the Alexandrinsky Theatre's mastery of performance. Its repertoire included both classic and modern Russian and European works of all genres. Many plays that became Russian classics were performed for the first time in the Alexandrinsky Theatre, like N.V. Gogol's The Inspector General (1836), Alexander Pushkin's The Stone Guest (1847) and The Miserly Knight (1852), M.Y. Lermontov's Masquerade (1852), and many others. Comedy and vaudeville, which contributed to the perfection of a versatile acting technique, also occupied an important place in the repertoire. One playwright who appeared most in the theatre's repertoire of the second half of the 19th century is A. N. Ostrovsky. At the turn of 19-20th centuries, a number of reforms were undertaken under the guidance of S.M. Volkonsky and V.A. Telyakovsky, directors of the Imperial Court Theatres, who together developed the New Drama with stronger directors (E.P. Karpov, Y.E. Ozarovsky, A.A. Sanin, A.N. Lavrentyev, N.V. Petrov, A.L. Zagarov, Y.L. Rakitin), renewed design principles (with artists from the World of Art Association), creation of a stylistic unity between productions, and involving performers with new stage specialisations. The theatre's creative achievement of that period came in large part due to its director, V.E. Meyerhold, who staged 20 plays there, and his collaboration with artist/painter A.Y. Golovin, their best-known productions including Don Juan by J.-B. Moliere (1910), The Storm by A.N. Ostrovsky (1916), and Lermontov's Masquerade (1917). During the early 20th century the Alexandrinsky Theatre Company boasted the following actors: P.V. Samoylov, K.N. Yakovlev, E.I. Time, B.A Gorin-Goryainov, L.S. Vivien, E. N. Roshchina-Insarova, Y.O. Malyutin, and E.P. Korchagina-Alexandrovskaya. Under artistic director Yuryev (1922-28), the theatre presented productions of young prominent directors, among them Petrov (general manager and artistic director in 1928-32), S.E. Radlov (artistic director in 1936-38), Vivien (artistic director in 1938-66), and K.P. Khokhlov; and artists V.V. Dmitriev, N.P. Akimov, M.Z. Levin, B.M. Erbstein, and I.M. Rabinovich. In 1924 Akdrama founded a theatre-studio to train the next generation of actors. Soviet drama dominated Petrov's repertoire (Armoured Train 14-69 by V.V. Ivanov, A Crank and Fear by A.N. Afinogenov). In the 1930-40s, B.M. Sushkevich (artistic director, 1932-36), V.P. Kozhich, B.A. Babochkin, N.S. Rashevskaya, A.A. Muzil, G.M. Kozintsev, and others enriched the list of directors associated with the Alexandrinsky Theatre. Pushkin's Boris Godunov (1934), Ostrovsky's The Forest (1936), Peter I (1938) based on A.N. Tolstoy's book and many other performances became the highlights of the Alexandrinsky Theatre in the 1930s. The company included V.L. Yureneva, Rashevskaya, N.K. Simonov, E.M. Wolf-Izrael, I.N. Pevtsov, K.I. Adashevsky, Babochkin, A.F. Borisov, N.K. Cherkasov, K.V. Skorobogatov, V.V. Merkuryev, Y.V. Tolubeev, O.Y. Lebzak, Y.O. Malyutin, and B.A. Freindlikh. In 1941 the theatre was evacuated to Novosibirsk, resuming its place in Leningrad in 1944. The best-known productions of the 1950-70s included Leo Tolstoy's The Living Corpse (staged by Kozhich and A.N. Dauson, 1950), W. Shakespeare's Hamlet (staged by Kozintsev, 1954), V.V. Vishnevsky's Optimistic Tragedy (staged by G.A. Tovstonogov, 1955), M. Gorky's The Lower Depths (staged by Vivien and V.V. Erenberg, 1956), M.A. Bulgakov's Flight, Alexander Pushkin's Little Tragedies (staged by Vivien, 1958, 1962), B. Brecht's The Good Person of Setzuan (staged by R.R. Suslovich, 1962), G. Hauptmann's Before Sunset (staged by Muzil, 1963), Y.M. Svirin's Autumn in Boldino and A.P. Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard (staged by R.A. Goryaev, 1969, 1972), C. Gozzi's The Green Bird (staged by N.M. Sheyko, 1976), Gorky's Children of the Sun, and Chekhov's Ivanov (staged by A.O. Sagalchik, 1976, 1978). Actors V.I. Chestnokov, I.O. Gorbachev (artistic director of the theatre, 1975-91), N.V. Mamaeva, N.N. Urgant, L.A. Chursina, and G.T. Karelina joined the company of the Alexandrinsky Theatre. In 1956-64, A.F. Bosulaev was the theatre's main actor, succeeded by M.F. Kitaev in 1973-90. The theatre's Literary Studies Department, which functioned in the 1930s was reinstated in the 1990s. The department was involved in research, publishing, and festival activities (The Flight of the Seagull International Conference of 1996, conferences dedicated to the works of A.P. Sumarokov, Meyerhold, Yuryev, Vivien and Simonov; workshops of the modern Russian and foreign drama etc.) In 1996 a series of books called the Library of the Alexandrinsky Theatre was published. Actors experimented on the Small Stage of the theatre (The attic of the Alexandrinsky). The theatre currently engages the following directors: V.E. Vorobyev, A.A. Praudin, A.V. Galibin, G.M. Kozlov, R.V. Smirnov, G.R. Trostyanetsky, and V.V. Fokin. As of 2003, the company includes S.I. Parshin, N.S. Marton, V.F. Smirnov, K.A. Petrova, S.S. Smirnova, N.V. Burov, A.L. Bargman, A.V. Devotchenko, I.N. Volkov, N.V. Panina, and E.K. Zimina. In 1991-2003 G.A. Sashchenko was the theatre's general manager and artistic director, and since 2003 V.V. Fokin its artistic director and A.V. Galibin its main director. The building of the Alexandrinsky Theatre (constructed in 1828-32) is one of the best examples of Petersburg Classicism, and is at the centre of a grandiose architectural ensemble created by architect C.I. Rossi (Alexandrinskaya Square, today Ostrovskogo Square, Zodchego Rossi Street, Lomonosova Square). The main facade is decorated with a gallery of six Corinthian columns crowned with an attic of moulded reliefs and an Apollo wheel (sculptor S.S. Pimenov). Bays on the sides of the main facade contain sculptures of Terpsihore and Melpomene, and at the back one of Clio and Thalia (restored in 1932 sculptor I.V. Krestovsky). The sides are adorned with 8-columned porticoes. The hall features 1102 seats.

References: Альтшуллер А. Я. Театр прославленных мастеров: Очерки истории Александрин. сцены. Л., 1968; Ленинградский государственный ... академический театр драмы им. А. С. Пушкина. Л., 1983.

A. A. Kirillov.

Abamelik-Lazarev Semen Semenovich
Adashevsky Konstantin Ignatievich
Afinogenov Alexander Nikolaevich
Akimov Nikolay Pavlovich
Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress
Apollonsky Roman Borisovich
Asenkova Varvara Nikolaevna
Babochkin Boris Andreevich
Bargman Alexander Lvovich
Borisov Alexander Fedorovich
Bosulaev Anatoly Fedotovich
Brecht Bertolt
Bryansky Yakov Grigorievich
Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich
Burov Nikolay Vitalievich
Chekhov Anton Pavlovich
Cherkasov Nikolay Konstantinovich
Chestnokov Vladimir Ivanovich
Chursina Lyudmila Alexeevna
Dalmatov Vasily Panteleimonovich
Dalsky (Neelov) Mamont Viktorovich
Dauson Antonin N.
Davydov Vladimir Nikolaevich
Devotchenko Alexey Valerievich
Dmitrevsky (real name Narykov) Ivan Afanasievich
Dmitriev Vladimir Vladimirovich
Dyur Nikolay Osipovich
Erbstein Boris Mikhailovich
Erenberg Vladimir Vladimirovich
Fokin Valery Vladimirovich
Freindlikh Bruno Arturovich
Galibin Alexander Vladimirovich
Gogol Nikolay Vasilievich
Golovin Alexander Yakovlevich
Gorbachev Igor Olegovich
Gorin-Goryainov Boris Anatolievich
Gorky Maxim (Alexey Maximovich Peshkov)
Goryaev Rostislav Arkadievich
Gozzi Carlo
Hauptmann Gerhard
Ivanov Vsevolod Vyacheslavovich
Karatygin Vasily Andreevich
Karelina Galina Timofeevna
Karpov Evtikhy Pavlovich
Khodotov Nikolay Nikolaevich
Khokhlov Konstantin Pavlovich
Kitaev Mart Frolovich
Komissarzhevskaya Vera Fedorovna
Korchagina-Alexandrovskaya Ekaterina Pavlovna
Kozhich Vladimir Platonovich
Kozintsev Grigory Mikhailovich
Kozlov Ivan Ivanovich
Krestovsky Igor Vsevolodovich
Krutitsky Anton Mikhailovich
Lavrentyev Andrey Nikolaevich
Lebzak Olga Yakovlevna
Lermontov Mikhail Yurievich
Levin Moisey Zeligovich
Malyutin (real name Itin) Yakov Osipovich
Mamaeva Nina Vasilievna
Marton Nikolay Sergeevich
Martynov Andrey Efimovich
Merkuryev Vasily Vasilievich
Meyerhold Vsevolod Emilievich
Michurina-Samoilova Vera Arkadievna
Moliere Jean-Baptiste
Muzil Alexander Alexandrovich
Nicholas I, Emperor
Ostrovsky Alexander Nikolaevich
Ozarovsky Yury Erastovich
Panina Natalia Vadimovna
Parshin Sergey Ivanovich
Petrov Nikolay Vasilievich
Petrova (Kreylis) Kira Alexandrovna
Pevtsov Illarion Nikolaevich
Pimenov Stepan Stepanovich
Pisarev Modest Ivanovich
Plavilshchikov Peter Alexeevich
Praudin Anatoly Arkadievich
Pushkin Alexander Sergeevich
Rabinovich Isaac Moiseevich
Radlov Sergey Ernestovich
Rakitin Yury Lvovich
Rashevskaya Natalia Sergeevna
Roshchina-Insarova Ekaterina Nikolaevna
Rossi Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni)
Rykalov Vasily Fedotovich
Sagalchik Arseny Ovseevich
Samoylov Pavel Vasilievich
Samoylov Vasily Vasilievich
Samoylova Vera Vasilievna
Sandunov Sila Nikolaevich
Sanin (real name Shenberg) Alexander Akimovich
Sashchenko Georgy Alexandrovich
Savina Maria Gavrilovna
Sazonov Nikolay Fedorovich
Semenova Ekaterina Semenovna
Shakespeare William
Sheyko Nikolay Mikhailovich
Shumsky Yakov Danilovich
Shusherin Yakov Emelyanovich
Simonov Nikolay Konstantinovich
Skorobogatov Konstantin Vasilievich
Smirnov Roman Vladimirovich
Smirnov Viktor Fedorovich
Smirnova Svetlana Stanislavovna
Sosnitsky Ivan Ivanovich
Strelskaya Varvara Vasilievna
Strepetova Pelageya (Polina) Antipievna
Sumarokov Alexander Petrovich
Sushkevich Boris Mikhailovich
Suslovich Rafail Rafailovich
Telyakovsky Vladimir Arkadievich
Time Elizaveta Ivanovna
Tolstoy Alexey Nikolaevich
Tolubeev Yury Vladimirovich
Tovstonogov Georgy Alexandrovich
Troepolskaya Tatyana Mikhailovna
Trostyanetsky Gennady Rafailovich
Urgant Nina Nikolaevna
Varlamov Konstantin Alexandrovich
Vasilyev Pavel Vasilievich
Vishnevsky Vsevolod Vitalievich
Vivien Leonid Sergeevich
Volkonsky Sergey Mikhailovich, Duke
Volkov Fedor Grigorievich
Volkov Igor Nikolaevich
Vorobyev Vladimir Egorovich
Wolf-Izrael Evgenia Mikhailovna
Yakovlev Alexey Semenovich
Yakovlev Kondrat Nikolaevich
Yureneva Vera Leonidovna
Yuryev Yury Mikhailovich
Zagarov (real name Fessing) Alexander Leonidovich
Zimina Elena Konstantinovna

Lomonosova Square/Saint Petersburg, city
Ostrovsky Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 2
Zodchego Rossi Street/Saint Petersburg, city

Альтшуллер А. Я. Театр прославленных мастеров: Очерки истории Александрин. сцены. Л., 1968
Ленинградский государственный ... академический театр драмы им. А. С. Пушкина. Л., 1983

The subject Index
World of Art, Association


Akimov N.P. (1901-1968) director

AKIMOV Nikolay Pavlovich (1901-1968), artist, director, pedagogue, theatre worker, People's Artist of the USSR (1961). From 1910 he lived in Tsarskoe Selo, from 1912 in St. Petersburg. Studied in St

Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress (1798-1860)

ALEXANDRA FEDOROVNA (1798-1860, Tsarskoe Selo), Empress (from 1825). Nee the Prussian Princess Frederika Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina. Wife (from 1817) of Emperor Nicholas I and mother of Emperor Alexander II

Altman N.I. (1889-1970), artist

ALTMAN Natan Isaevich (1889-1970, Leningrad), painter, graphic artist, and sculptor, recognised as an honoured painter of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1968. He studied at the Odessa Drawing School in 1902-07 and M

Andreev L.N. (1871-1919), writer

ANDREEV Leonid Nikolaevich (1871-1919, Navol's house, near Mustamyaka, Finland; today Gorkovskoe Village of Leningrad Region), writer, dramatist. In 1891 he entered Faculty of Law of Petersburg University (dismissed for non-payment)

Andzhan Anton Iosifovich (1892-1974), make-up artist

ANDZHAN Anton Iosifovich (1892-1974), make-up artist, Honoured Worker of Culture of the RSFSR (1967). He worked as a make-up artist in St. Petersburg’s theatres and worked on the most prominent actors of the Alexandrinsky Theatre

Asenkova V.N., (1817-1841), actress

ASENKOVA Varvara Nikolaevna (1817 - 1841, St. Petersburg), actress. Studied at the Petersburg Drama School (1828-30) and in a private boarding school, graduating from neither one. In 1835 she was trained by I.I

Bakst L.S., (1866-1924), artist

BAKST (Rosenberg) Lev Samoilovich (1866-1924), painter, graphic artist, and stage designer. He was an irregular student at the Academy of Arts in 1883-87 and private academies in Paris in 1890s. He became a member of the Academy of Arts in 1914

Bazen P.P.(D.), (1786-1838), architectural engineer

BAZEN (Bazaine) Peter Petrovich (Pierre Dominiq) (1786-1838), architectural engineer, mechanic, mathematician, pedagogue, fellow (1817) and honorary member (1827) of the St. Petersburg Academy of Science, lieutenant general (1830)

Bernstam Leopold-Bernhard (1859-1939), sculptor

BERNSTAM Leopold-Bernhard (Leopold Adolfovich) (1859-1939), sculptor. He lived in St. Petersburg in 1872-85. He studied under David Jensen at the Drawing School of Artists Encouragement Fund and in the Academy of Arts (an external student in

Bogdanova-Chesnokova G.V. (1904-1983), singer

BOGDANOVA-CHESNOKOVA Glikeria Vasilievna (1904, St. Petersburg - 1983, Leningrad), musical comedy actress, People's Artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1970). Made her debut in 1920 at the Alexandrinsky Theatre as Lucile in J

Catherine II, Monument to

CATHERINE II, MONUMENT TO. Erected on Alexandrinskaya Square (from 1923, called Ostrovskogo Square) in front of the Alexandrinsky Theatre on 24 November 1873. The artist M.O. Mikeshin started work on the plans in 1860

Catherine Square

CATHERINE SQUARE is situated in the centre of St. Petersburg on Nevsky Prospect. It is surrounded by the architecture ensemble of the Anichkov Palace, Alexandrinsky Theatre, and Russian National Library. The park was laid out in 1820-32 (architect K

Cavos A.K. (1800-1863), architect.

CAVOS Albert Katarinovich (1800, St. Petersburg - 1863, Peterhof), architect, representative of the late Neoclassicism of Italian descent. A son of C. A. Cavos. He studied at the University of Padua (Italy) under the guidance of C. I. Rossi

Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860–1904), a writer. Chekhov came into Saint Petersburg more than once since 1885. He mostly stayed at home of A.S. Suvorin, the publisher of the newspaper “The New Time” (6 Ertyelev Lane (now Chekhov Street))

Cherkasov N.K., (1903-1966), actor

CHERKASOV Nikolay Konstantinovich (1903, St. Petersburg - 1966, Leningrad), actor, People's Artist of the USSR (1947). Graduated from the Leningrad Dramatics School in 1926

Clark Matthew (1776-1846), metallurgical engineer

CLARK Matvey Egorovich (Matthew) (1776-1846), metallurgical engineer, Chief Hunt Master. A native of Scotland, he served as inspector at St. Petersburg Iron Foundry (today, Kirovsky Plant) in 1824 and director of Alexandrovsky Foundry (today

Confectioner's Shops (entry)

CONFECTIONER'S SHOPS. Public food-service establishments where coffee, chocolate, ice-cream, fruits, and other sweets were served. Since the early 1810s, confectioner's shops gradually replaced "sweet shops," offering various sweets for take-away

Dalsky (Neelov) M.V. (1865-1918), actor

DALSKY (born Neelov) Mamont Viktorovich (1865-1918), actor. He studied law at Kharkov University but quit as he was in his second year in 1885. He worked as an actor in the country and at E. N. Goreva's theatre in Moscow in 1889-90

Davydov V.N., (1849-1925), actor

DAVYDOV Vladimir Nikolaevich (real name Ivan Nikolaevich Gorelov) (1849-1925), actor, pedagogue, People's Artist of the Respublic (1922). In 1866, he graduated from a gymnasium in Tambov

Drama Theatre (entry)

DRAMA THEATRE. The performances of the theatre of Tsar Peter the Great's sister, Tsarevna Natalia Alexeevna (from 1714) can be considered as the first attempts to establish a standing public theatre in St. Petersburg

Dyur N.O. (1807-1839), actor

DYUR Nikolay Osipovich (1807 - 1839, St. Petersburg), actor. After receiving training in ballet and drama at the Theatre College in St. Petersburg in 1829, he joined the Russian court drama company

Freindlikh B.A., (1909-2002), actor

FREINDLIKH Bruno Arturovich (1909 - 2002, St. Petersburg), actor, People's Artist of the USSR (1974). In 1931-34, studied at the Dramatics School (today Academy of Dramatic Arts)

General Plans for the Development of Petersburg-Leningrad

GENERAL PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PETERSBURG-LENINGRAD. One the first projects of St. Petersburg planning dates back to 1709-12. According to it, the city centre should be situated at Kotlin Island and was to be connected to outer parts of the

Glazunov A.K., (1865-1936), composer

GLAZUNOV Alexander Konstantinovich (1865 - 1936, St. Petersburg), composer, conductor, pedagogue, public figure, People's Artist of the Republic (1922). Comes from the Glazunov family. From 1879, he studied composition and music theory under N.A

Glinka M.I., (1804-1857), composer

GLINKA Mikhail Ivanovich (1804-1857), composer. Lived in St. Petersburg from 1817; in 1818-22, studied at the Noble Boarding School of the Main Pedagogical Institute (164 Fontanka River Embankment). Glinka's tutor was W.K. Kuchelbecker

Gogol N.V. (1809-1852), writer

GOGOL Nikolay Vasilievich (1809-1852), writer. Graduated from Poltava Provincial School (1819) and Nezhinsk Gymnasium of Higher Sciences (1828). In 1828 moved to St

Golovin А.Y. (1863-1930), artist

GOLOVIN Alexander Yakovlevich (1863-1930, Detskoe Selo), stage designer and painter, full member of the Academy of Arts (1912), people's artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1928)

Gorbachev I. O. (1927-2003), actor, director

GORBACHEV Igor Olegovich (1927-2003), actor, director, People's Artist of the USSR (1972), Hero of Socialist Labour (1987). In 1945, he enrolled at the Philosophy Department of the Leningrad State University

Imperial Theatres

IMPERIAL THEATRES (in the 18th century court theatres, in the 19th century also called public theatres), originally intended to entertain the Imperial family, and to entertain and educate the public

Italian Opera

ITALIAN OPERA existed in St. Petersburg in 1733-1914 (intermittently) in two guises: as Italian musical theatre with performances in Italian and as proper Italian operas performed by Russian companies in Russian (from 1781 up to the present moment)

Komissarzhevskaya V.F., (1864-1910), actress

KOMISSARZHEVSKAYA Vera Fedorovna (1864, St. Petersburg - 1910), actress. The sister of F.F. Komissarzhevsky. Studied in Moscow under her father, opera singer and pedagogue F.P

Korchagina-Alexandrovskaya E.P., (1874-1951), actress

KORCHAGINA-ALEXANDROVSKAYA (nee Korchagina, married name Alexandrovskaya, until 1895 her stage name was Olgina) Ekaterina Pavlovna (1874-1951, Leningrad), actress, People's Artist of the USSR (1936)

Krasny Kabachok, tavern

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Leiner's Restaurant

LEINER'S RESTAURANT. Opened circa 1885 at 18 Nevsky Prospect by entrepreneur F.O. Leiner; after his death, the restaurant went to his widow V. Leiner. In the late 19th century, Leiner's was a sort of an artistic club

Leningrad Metallurgic Plant (LMP)

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Leonova D.М., (1829-1896), singer

LEONOVA (Gildmeister after her first marriage) Daria Mikhaylovna (1829, according to other reports, 1834-1896, St. Petersburg), opera singer (contralto), actress, chamber singer, and teacher. Lived in St

Likhachev B.S. (1902-1934), cinema historian

LIKHACHEV Boris Sergeevich (1902, St. Petersburg - 1934, Leningrad), cinema historian. He studied at Petrograd Theatre College in 1917-18. He worked as an actor at the Alexandrinsky Theatre in 1919 but was drafted into the army

Lunacharsky A.V. (1875-1933), revolutionary, statesman

LUNACHARSKY Anatoly Vasilievich (1875-1933), Soviet statesman and party figure, playwright, literary critic, Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1930)

Martynov A.E., (1816-1860), actor

MARTYNOV Alexander Evstafievich (1816, St. Petersburg - 1860), actor. Graduated from the Petersburg Drama School in 1835 (studied ballet under Ch. Didelot, scenic designer under А. Canoppi, drama under P.A. Karatygin)

Meyerhold V.E., (1874-1940), director

MEYERHOLD Vsevolod Emilievich (Karl Kazimir Teodor Meiergold, before Orthodox christening in 1895) (1874-1940), director, actor, pedagogue, theatre worker, People's Artist of the Republic (1923)

Michurina-Samoylova V.A., (1866-1948), actress

MICHURINA-SAMOYLOVA Vera Arkadievna (1866-1948), actress, People's Artist of the USSR (1939). Daughter of V.V. Samoylova. Performed first under her father's name, Michurina, then in 1921 as Michurina-Samoylova

Mravina E.K. (1864-1914), singer

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Museum of Theatre and Music Art

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Nekrasov N. A. (1821-1877), poet

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Orlenev Pavel Nikolaevich (1869-1932), actor

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Panteleev Alexander Petrovich (1874-1948), film director

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Petrov V.M. (1896-1966), film director

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Pevtsov I.N., (1879-1934), actor

PEVTSOV Illarion Nikolaevich (1879-1934, Leningrad), actor, pedagogue, People's Artist of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1932). In 1902, completed drama courses at the Musical Drama School of Moscow Philharmonic Society

Phoenix Restaurant

PHOENIX. A restaurant opened by the merchant Ivanov on 29 January 1833 on Alexandrinskaya Square (behind the building of the Alexandrinsky Theatre; today 2 Ostrovskogo Square), serving Russian and French cuisine

Pimenov S.S. (1784-1833), sculptor

PIMENOV Stepan Stepanovich (1784 - 1833, St. Petersburg), sculptor. Father of N.S. Pimenov. Studied at the Academy of Arts (1795-1803) under M.I. Kozlovsky and I.P. Prokofyev

Pisarev Modest Ivanovich (1844-1905), actor

PISAREV Modest Ivanovich (1844-1905, St. Petersburg), actor and writer. He graduated from the law department of the Moscow University (1865). He performed in amateur clubs of Moscow in 1860s, the Society of Lovers of Dramatic Art

Proletarsky Zavod, Manufacturing Association

PROLETARSKY ZAVOD (3 Dudko Street), an open joint-stock company, the largest manufacturer of ship, energy, and general machinery in the north-west region of Russia

Pushkin Alexander Sergeevich (1799-1837), poet

PUSHKIN Alexander Sergeevich (1799-1837, St. Petersburg), poet, prose writer, playwright, historian, journalist. Studied at the Imperial Lyceum at Tsarskoe Selo (1811-17; memorial plaque; presently a memorial museum)

Radlov Sergey Ernestovich (1892-1958), director

RADLOV Sergey Ernestovich (1892-1958), director, pedagogue, Honoured Worker of the Arts of RSFSR (1940). He graduated from the history and philosophy department of the St. Petersburg University (1916)

Roshchina-Insarova Е.N. (1883-1970), actress

ROSHCHINA-INSAROVA Ekaterina Nikolaevna (nee Pashennaya) (1883-1970), actress, actor N. P. Roshchin-Insarov's daughter and actress V. N. Pashennaya's sister. She made her debut in 1897 and appeared on stage in the country, as well as at F. A

Rossi C.I. (1775-1849), architect

ROSSI Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni) (1775-1849, St. Petersburg), architect. The son of the court ballerina G. Lepik. Graduated from the Peterschule in St. Petersburg, apprenticed architecture with V

Samoylov P.V., (1866-1931), actor

SAMOYLOV Pavel Vasilievich (1866, St. Petersburg - 1931, Leningrad), actor, Honoured Artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1923). Son of V.V. Samoylov. Graduated from the Petersburg School of Commerce (1886)

Samoylov V.V., (1813-1887), actor

SAMOYLOV Vasily Vasilievich (1813, St. Petersburg - 1887, ibidem), actor. Brother of V.V. Samoylov, father of P.V. Samoylov. Graduated from the Mining Cadet Corps (1829) and the Institute of Forestry (1832)

Samoylova V.V. (1824-1880), actress

SAMOYLOVA Vera Vasilievna (1824 - 1880, St. Petersburg), actress. Sister of V.V. Samoylov, mother of V.A. Michurina-Samoylova. Studied acting technique under her sister L.V. Samoylova

Sanin А.А. (1869-1956), actor, director

SANIN (born Shenberg) Alexander Akimovich (1869-1956), actor and director. He graduated from Moscow University with a major in history and philosophy in 1895. He worked as an actor and director in the Society of Art and Literature from 1888 and at

Savina M.G., (1854-1915), actress

SAVINA Maria Gavrilovna (nee Podramentseva, Slavich from her first marriage in 1870, Vsevolozhskaya from her second marriage in 1882, Molchanova from her third marriage in 1910; originally carried the stage name Stremlyanova

Sazonov N.F. (1843-1902), actor

SAZONOV Nikolay Fedorovich (1843, St. Petersburg - 1902, the same place), actor. He started appearing on stage in the country under the name of Shuvalov. After graduating from the Theatre College in 1863

Simonov N.K., (1901-1973), actor

SIMONOV Nikolay Konstantinovich (1901-1973, Leningrad), actor, People's Artist of the USSR (1950), Hero of Socialist Labor (1971). Studied at the Industrial School of Art in Samara (1918-20). Lived in Petrograd (Leningrad) from 1921

Sologub F.K. (1863-1927), writer

SOLOGUB Fedor (real name Teternikov Fedor Kuzmich) (1863, St. Petersburg - 1927, Leningrad), a poet, prose writer, playwright and translator. In 1882-92, after graduating from St

Sosnitsky I.I., (1794-1871), actor

SOSNITSKY Ivan Ivanovich (1794 - 1871, St. Petersburg), actor. Graduated from the Petersburg Drama School (1811). Studied drama under I.A. Dmitrevsky, and ballet under Ch. Didelot

Starinny (Old) Theatre

STARINNY (OLD) THEATRE, drama theatre. Functioned in the season of 1907/08 at Kononovsky Hall, 61 Moika River Embankment (today the University for Telecommunication), and 1911/12 in the exhibition halls of Solyanoy Settlement, 9b Solyanoy Lane

Strepetova P.A., (1850-1903), actress

STREPETOVA Pelageya (Polina) Antipievna (1850-1903), actress. Her performances in Kazan (1871) and Moscow exposed her talent for tragedy and made her famous. Strepetova, who invested her characters with the spirit of social protest

Tolstoy A.K. (1817-1875), writer

TOLSTOY Alexey Konstantinovich (1817, St. Petersburg - 1875), count, writer, associate of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1873). He had been living in St. Petersburg intermittently from 1825

Tolubeev Y.V., (1906-1979), actor

TOLUBEEV Yury Vladimirovich (1906 - 1979, Leningrad), actor, People's Artist of the USSR (1956), Hero of Socialist Labour (1976). Graduated from the Leningrad Dramatics School (1929; today Academy of Dramatic Arts)

Tovstonogov Bolshoy Drama Theatre

TOVSTONOGOV BOLSHOY DRAMA THEATRE (BDT), academic theater located at 65 Fontanka Embankment, founded in 1919 by the joint effort of A.A. Blok (director), M. Gorky (in 1932-92 bore his name) and M.F

Tovstonogov G.A., (1913-1989), director

TOVSTONOGOV Georgy Alexandrovich (1913-1989, Leningrad), director, pedagogue, theatre worker, People's Artist of the USSR (1957), Hero of Socialist Labour (1983), corresponding member of the Academy of Arts of GDR (1983)

Tsentralny (Central) District

TSENTRALNY (CENTRAL) DISTRICT, an administrative-territorial entity within St. Petersburg, with the territorial administration situated at 176 Nevsky Prospect. The district was set up in 1994, when Smolninsky District

Turgenev I.S. (1818-1883), writer

TURGENEV Ivan Sergeevich (1818-1883), writer, associate of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1860). In 1834 he transferred from the University of Moscow to the Philological Department of the Faculty of Philosophy of Petersburg University

Varlamov K.A., (1848-1915), actor

VARLAMOV Konstantin Alexandrovich (1848, St. Petersburg - 1915, Petrograd), actor, son of composer A.E. Varlamov. Educated at home. Took part in amateur performances. Began working on the professional stage in 1867, at the theatre of A.M

Vasilyev P.V., (1832-1879), actor

VASILYEV Pavel Vasilievich (1832-1879), actor. Graduated from the Moscow Drama School (1850). In St. Petersburg, succeeded A.E. Martynov, who had strong impact on him in the 1850s, in the Alexandrinsky Theatre's troupe (1860-64, 1865-74)

White Nights, festival

WHITE NIGHTS, A musical and theatrical festival succeeding the Leningrad Festival of Arts held from 1958 to 1963. The annual festival was conducted in Leningrad from 1964 to 1990, on 21-29 June

Yablochkov P.N., (1847-1894), electrical engineer

YABLOCHKOV Pavel Nikolaevich (1847-1894), electrical engineer. In St. Petersburg, he left the Nikolaevskoe Engineering School in 1866 and Technical Galvanic School in 1869

Yunger E.V. (1910-1999), actress

YUNGER Elena Vladimirovna (1910 - 1999, St. Petersburg), actress, People's Artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1950). In 1925-30, she studied at the Leningrad Institute for Art History

Yureneva V.L. (1876-1962), actress

YURENEVA Vera Leonidovna (1876-1962), actress, Honoured Artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1935. She came to St. Petersburg in the 1890s, to complete the Drama Courses of the Theatre College in 1902

Yuryev Y.M., (1872-1948), actor

YURYEV Yury Mikhailovich (1872-1948, Leningrad), actor, pedagogue, theatre worker, People's Artist of the USSR (1939). Graduated from drama courses at the Moscow Drama School (1893)