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Entries / Dzerzhinsky F.E. (1877-1926), revolutionary, statesman

Dzerzhinsky F.E. (1877-1926), revolutionary, statesman

Categories / Capital/Personalia
Categories / Social Life/Personalia

DZERZHINSKY Felix Edmundovich (1877-1926), Soviet party figure and statesman. In 1887-96, he studied at the Vilno Gymnasium (did not graduate); from 1895, he took part in the Polish and Russian social democratic movement; was arrested and exiled more than once. In 1916, he was committed to the Butyrskaya Prison (Moscow), from which he was released in February 1917. A delegate at the Sixth (April) All-Russian Conference and Sixth Congress of Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Bolshevik Party in Petersburg (on this and following congresses he was chosen as a member of the Central Committee). In October 1917, he was a member of the Military Revolutionary Party's Centre and Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee; on 25 October (7 November) he oversaw the take-over of the Central Post Office and Telegraph Office. he was a delegate at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets (on this and congresses that followed was chosen a member of All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Central Executive Committee of the USSR). From November 1917, he was a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee Presidium and a member of the Collegium of Peoples' Commissariat of Home Affairs. From November 1917 - February 1922, he was chairman of the All-Russian Emergency Commission (the All-Russian Cheka) (at 2/6 Gorokhovaya Street, where Dzerzhinsky worked until March of 1918, memorial plaque installed; in 1974-90, Dzerzhinsky's memorial apartment-museum; since 1994, the Historical Museum of the Political Police, where a memorial exhibition has been preserved). In March 1918, as a member of the Soviet Government, he moved to Moscow; in 1922-26, he was Chairman of State Political Administration Board and the Joint State Political Administration Board (GPU and OGPU). From January 1921, he was Chairman of the Commission for the Improvement of Children's Life of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (primarily addressing the issue of homelessness). From April 1921, he was concurrently the Peoples' Commissar for Communication Lines. From 1924, he was also Chairman of the Supreme Soviet for the National Economy of the USSR, and an associate member of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee. In 1917-18, he lived at Smolny and in the All-Russian Emergency Commission (All-Russian Cheka or Vcheka) building on Gorokhovaya Street. In 1927-91, Gorokhovaya Street was named Dzerzhinskogo Street; one of Leningrad's administrative districts also bore his name (in 1994 it was abolished, the territory now belongs to the Central District). A monument to Dzerzhinsky was erected on Shpalernaya Street (1981; sculptors V E. Gorevo, S. A. Kubasov, architect V. B. Bukhaev). Several institutions in St Petersburg were named after Dzerzhinsky.

References: Зубов Н. И. Ф. Э. Дзержинский: Биография. 3-е доп. изд. М., 1971.

Y. N. Kruzhnov.

Bukhaev Vyacheslav Borisovich
Dzerzhinsky Ivan Ivanovich
Gorevoy Vladimir Emilievich
Kubasov Sergey Anatolievich

Gorokhovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 2/6

The subject Index
Museum of History of Political Police