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Entries / Real Schools (entry)

Real Schools (entry)

Categories / Science. Education/Educational Institutions

REAL SCHOOLS, incomplete secondary or secondary education institutions providing general and special courses with an emphasis placed on natural sciences and mathematics. The first Real department was opened in St. Petersburg in 1830s as a part of Larin's Gymnasium. Following the Charter of 1864, the Seventh Real Gymnasium was founded as the only gymnasium in the city at 34/5 Twelfth Line of Vasilievsky Island. It was reorganised into a six-class Real school in 1872, which had two departments: a basic department and commercial department. The curriculum included divine law, Russian and foreign languages, geography, history, calligraphy, drawing and plotting, mathematics, natural history, physics, chemistry, and mechanics. Two senior classes were additionally taught special applied disciplines divided into four departments: general, mechanical technical, chemical technical, and commercial. The Second Real School with the same curriculum was opened in 1873 at 3 Eighth Rota Street (today, Eighth Krasnoarmeyskaya Street), the building constructed by architect A. N. Iossa in 1898-1900. Real school graduates were allowed to enter specialised higher education institutions but they could not enter universities. Transformed into general education institutions with a seven-year course of studies in 1888, Real schools extended their basic curriculum, thus, enabling graduates to enter university departments of physics, mathematics, and medicine. From 1906, they were allowed to enter other departments as well, subject to passing an additional examination in Latin. The Third Real School and the Fourth Real School were opened at 21 Grechesky Avenue in 1896 and at 27 Kazanskaya Square in 1914, respectively. Other four Real schools were attached to Lutheran and Reformed churches. The shortage of Real schools prompted teachers to open private schools. N. V. Boginsky's was the oldest private Real school opened at 83 Nevsky Prospect in 1871. Other private Real schools and gymnasiums followed such as F. I. Wiedemann's school at 46 Ninth Line of Vasilievsky Island and K. I. May and Y. G. Gurevich's school at 43/1 Ligovskaya Street. Most Real schools were opened in the early 20th century including those for women such as the Real department of the women's gymnasium attached to the Women Teachers' Institute at 26 Malaya Posadskaya Street and V. P. Kuzmina's Co-educational Real School at 1/17 Tserkovnaya Street (today, Blokhina Street). There were 27 Real schools in St. Petersburg in 1916, of which 19 were private schools. All Real schools were reorganised into government and united labour schools in 1918.

Reference: Вессель Н. Х. Реальные училища. СПб., 1903; Князев Г. М. Исторический очерк С.-Петербургского первого реального училища, 1862-1912 гг. СПб., 1912.

Е. М. Balashov.

Boginsky N.V.
Gurevich Yakov Grigorievich
Iossa Andrey Nikolaevich
Kuzmina V.P.
May Karl Ivanovich
Wiedemann Ferdinand Ivanovich

8th Krasnoarmeiskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
9th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 46
12th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 5/34
Blokhina St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 17/1
Grechesky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 21
Kazanskaya Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 27
Ligovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 1/43
Malaya Posadskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 26
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 83

Вессель Н. Х. Реальные училища. СПб., 1903
Князев Г. М. Исторический очерк С.-Петербургского первого реального училища, 1862-1912 г. СПб., 1912