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Entries / Russian Style

Russian Style

Categories / Architecture/Architectural Styles

RUSSIAN STYLE. A trend in Russian architecture of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century, based on using methods and shapes of ancient and traditional Russian art and architecture. The Russian style emerged out of the aesthetics of Romanticism. The first examples of turning to folk tradition were seen in the village of Glazovo on the outskirts of Pavlovsk (1815, architect K.I. Rossi), in the pavillions in Ekaterinhof (1824, architect А.А. Montferrand, not preserved), and at the Nikolsky residence in Peterhof (1834, architect А. I. Stakenschneider). Architect K.A. Ton founded the Russian style in his church architecture from the period of Eclecticism; his creative work embodied the "nationalist" forms, as meant in the tsarist slogan "Autocracy, Orthodoxy and Nationalism". In his early works, Ton turned to the five-domed churches of Moscow from the 15th and 16th centuries for inspiration (as seen in his St. Catherine's Cathedral, 6 Old Peterhof Highway, 1831-1837; Presentation of the Holy Virgin Church, 45а Zagorodny Avenue, 1837-1842 (neither has survived); also, various churches in Tsarskoe Selo and Petergof). Later, Ton borrowed from the steeple roofed chapels of the 16th -17th centuries (Holy Annunciation Church, Truda Square; 1844-49; and St. Miron’s Church, 16/99 Obvodny Canal Embankment; 1849-1855; neither has survived). Architect N.E. Efimov was among Ton's followers (St. Mary Convent of Holy Resurrection (Novodevichy Convent)), 100 Moskovsky Avenue, 1849-1861; built by architects L.L. Bonstedt and N.A. Sychev). An unofficial trend in the Russian style can be seen in work by architect A.M. Gornostaev, including his buildings at the Valaam Monastery; and at the Holy Trinity & St. Sergius Hermitage (on the outskirts of St. Petersburg). He also built a Metochion of the Holy Trinity & St. Sergius Hermitage (44 Fontanka River Embankment, 1856-1857). Architects V.A. Hartman and I.P. Ropet became Gornostaev's followers, orientating themselves towards traditional folk art. Architects I.S. Bogomolov (N.N. Zaytseva apartment house, 20 Furstatskaya Street, 1875-1876, 1883) and N.P. Basin (see House of Basin) both joined this trend. Parallel to this was a nationalist style incorporating Byzantine monumental architecture. Architect D.I. Grimm was one of the founders of this trend. The first example of the Byzantine style in St. Petersburg is represented by the Greek Church of St. Demetrius of Thessalonica. The general transition to a creative use of ancient Russian architecture from the 17th century is connected with competitions for the construction of the Holy Resurrection Cathedral (Spas-na-Krovi) at the beginning of the 1880s. At the end of the 19th century, this variant of the Russian style began to dominate church and civil architecture (see works by architects N.V. Sultanov, A.I. von Gogen, N.N. Nikonova, and V.A. Kosyakov; see entry on the Kosyakovs). In the 1900s, under the influence of Art Nouveau, the Russian style was transformed into the so-called Neo-Russian style, marked by a freer interpretation of ancient Russian architecture, predominantly from ancient Novgorod and Pskov. The leaders of this new trend were architects V.A. Pokrovsky and A.V. Shchusev (for example, the Court Cathedral of Our Lady Fedorovskaya in Tsarskoe Selo).

References: Кириченко Е. И. Русский стиль: Поиски выражения нац. самобытности. Народность и национальность. Традиции древнерус. и нар. искусства в рус. искусстве XVIII - нач. XX в. М., 1997; Лисовский В. Г. "Национальный стиль" в архитектуре России. М., 2000.

B. М. Kirikov.

Basin Nikolay Petrovich
Bogomolov Ivan Semenovich
Bonstedt Lyubim (Ludwig) Lyubimovich
Efimov Nikolay Efimovich
Gogen Alexander Ivanovich von
Gornostaev Alexey Maximovich
Gornostaev Vasily Maximovich
Grimm David Ivanovich
Hartman Viktor Alexandrovich
Kosyakov Vladimir Antonovich
Montferrand Auguste Augustovich (Henri Louis Auguste Leger Ricard de)
Nikonov Nikolay Nikitich
Olga Konstantinovna, Grand Princess, Queen
Pokrovsky Vladimir Alexandrovich
Ropet Ivan Pavlovich (real name Petrov Ivan Nikolaevich)
Rossi Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni)
Shchusev Alexey Viktorovich
Stakensсhneider Andrey Ivanovich
Sultanov Nikolay Vladimirovich
Sychev Nikolay Alexandrovich
Ton Konstantin Andreevich
Zaytseva-Bogomolova Nadezhda Nikolaevna

Fontanka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 44
Furshtatskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 20
Moskovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 100
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 99/16
Staro-Petergofsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 6
Truda Square/Saint Petersburg, city
Zagorodny Avenue/Saint Petersburg, city, house 45, litera л. А

Кириченко Е. И. Русский стиль: Поиски выражения нац. самобытности. Народность и национальность. традиции древнерус. и нар. искусства в рус. искусстве XVIII - нач. XX в. М., 1997
Лисовский В. Г. "Национальный стиль" в архитектуре России. М., 2000

The subject Index
Presentation of the Holy Virgin Cathedral
Holy Annunciation Church (Truda Square)
Novodevichy Convent
Basin House
Greek Church of St. Demetrius of Thessalonica
Court Cathedral of Our Lady Feodorovskaya

Architectural Styles (entry)

ARCHITECTURAL STYLES, recognizable systems of architectural compositional techniques, forms and decor, whose differences are caused by social and cultural environment, aesthetic preferences and the type of architectural culture of a particular epoch

Gogen von A.I. (1856-1914), architect.

GOGEN Alexander Ivanovich von (1856-1914, Petrograd), architect, member of the Academy of Architcture (1895). He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts (1883). Among his early works, there are mansions of N.K

Gornostaev A.M. (1808-1862), architect.

GORNOSTAEV Alexey Maximovich (1808-1862, St. Petersburg), architect, teacher, representative of the Neo-Russian style, member of the academy (1838), professor of the Academy of Fine Arts (from 1849), college Advisor (1859). From 1825, he lived in St

Holy Resurrection Church

HOLY RESURRECTION CHURCH, located at 116 Obvodny Canal Embankment, an architectural monument. The church was commissioned by Society for Religious and Moral Education, constructed in 1904-08 to the designs of architect G. D

Necropolis of Artists

NECROPOLIS OF ARTISTS (in 1823-76, the New Lazarevskoe Cemetary; in 1876-1937, the Tikhvinskoe Cemetery). Memorial Necropolis Park included in 1937 in the City Sculpture Museum. Its square takes up 1.2 hectares

Nikonov N.N. (1849-1918), architect

NIKONOV Nikolay Nikitich (1849-1918), architect, representative of the Neo-Byzantine style. From the 1860s lived in St. Petersburg. Completed his studies and traineeship at city construction sites; assisted architect I.A. Monighetti

Sultanov N.V. (1850-1908), architect

SULTANOV NIKOLAY VLADIMIROVICH (1850, St. Petersburg- 1908), an architect, a restorer, a historian of architecture, Academician of Architecture (1893), a representative of so-called Russian style