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Entries / Lower Park (Petrodvorets)

Lower Park (Petrodvorets)

Categories / City Topography/Green Areas/Parks

LOWER PARK forms the main part of the Peterhof Palace and Park Ensemble, located on an area adjacent to the Gulf of Finland which is actually lower than sea level, hence its name. The total area of the park is 102.5 hectares and is one of the best examples of regular landscape architecture in Russia. It was laid out in 1710-24 according to the plan of Peter the Great. The Lower Park was reconstructed in the 1730-40s (architects I. F. Braunstein, J. B. Le Blond, M. G. Zemtsov, garden masters L. Garnichfelt, А. Borisov et al.) being divided by the Grand Canal into the western and eastern sections. There are so called sector lakes and Marline Lake, the Garden of Venus with a stone wall near the coast in the western section of the Lower Park near the Marli Palace. The Marli Palace was constructed in 1720-23 by architect I. F.Braunstein, it was demolished and reconstructed in 1898-99. The Marlinsky Cascade (also known as the Golden Hill) with marble sculptures, graded fountains and Triton Fountains (1722-25, architect N. Michetti) is located on the hill slope. Malibanskaya Alley, Marlinskaya (Central) Alley, Berezovaya Alley radiate from the Marli Palace. There is a symmetric fountain with the pools Eve and Adam (1718, sculptor P. Bonazza, 1721-22, architect N. Michetti) on the axis of Marlinskaya Alley. Star-like rays of the alleys radiate from the pools. The pavilion Hermitage in the western part of the Lower Park is located near the coast on an artificial island. The Hermitage was constructed in 1721-25 by architect I. F. Braunstein, the hall of the first floor was designed in 1759 by architect F. B. Rastrelli. The Lion's Cascade was built as a 14-column granite portico with cast-iron figures of lions and conforms in its design and appearance to the Hermitage Pavilion. The Lion's Cascade was designed in 1799-1801 by architect A. N. Voronikhin, sculptor I. P. Prokofiev; in 1854-57, by architect A. I. Stakensсhneider, but was destroyed in 1941-44, it was restored in 1956-2000. Parterre flower beds are in symmetry to the Grand Fountains (1720-22) in the central part of the Lower Park near the Grand Cascade. The marble Voronikhin's Colonnades with fountains on the roof (1722-24, architects N. Michetti, M. G. Zemtsov; were rebuilt in 1800-03, architect А. N. Voronikhin) on both sides of Sampson's Scoop. There is a fountain Favourite (1725-30, architect M. G. Zemtsov, sculptor N. Pinot, was restored in 1957) near the western colonnade. The Monplaisir Palace is in the eastern part of the Lower Park near the seashore. The Chinese Garden with a Shell fountain (1865-66, architect E. L. Gan) lies behind the Bathing Wing of Monplaisir Palace. Monplaisir Alley leads to the Chess Hill (the Dragons' Cascade, 1721-26, architect N. Michetti; 1737-39, architect M. G. Zemtsov). There are two Roman Fountains (1738-39, architects I. Y. Blank, N. Davydov) in front of the Chess Hill. There are Trick Fountains where Marlinskaya Alley crosses Monplaisir Alley. Oak Fountain (1735, sculptor B. K. Rastrelli), Firs, Umbrella (1784-96, master F. P. Brouer) are also located in this area. The Pyramid Fountain formed by 505 streams in seven tiers (1721-24, architect N. Michetti) lies to the east of the Chess Hill. There is also the Sun Fountain (1772-76, architect Y. M. Velten) with a pool and two open-air cages near the Monplaisir Alley. There is Triton Fountain (1726, architect T. N. Usov; the lost sculpture by B. K. Rastrelli was reconstructed in 1956) near the Grand Conservatory (1722-25, architect I. F. Braunstein; 1769-70, architect I. E. Yakovlev). All in all there are four cascades and 65 fountains in the Lower Park. The Lower Park suffered severe damage in 1941-44. The restoration works started in 1945. The Hermitage, Monplaisir Palace and Marli Palace were reconstructed in 1953-82. The restoration works for the reconstruction of the lost elements of park planning, planting and tree trimming have been developed since 1971 (architect P. P. Kovalevsky, engineer R. F. Kontskaya et al.).

References: Успенский А. И. Новые документы к истории петергофских дворцов и фонтанов в XVIII в. // Худож. сокровища России. 1902. № 7/8. С. 158-202; Дубяго Т. В. Русские регулярные сады и парки. Л., 1963; см. также лит. при ст. Петергоф.

Y. M. Piryutko.

Blank Ivan (Jogann)Yakovlevich
Bonazza Giovanni
Borisov A.
Braunstein Johann Friedrich
Brouer Franz
Davydov Nikolay Petrovich
Felten Yury (Georg Friedrich) Matveevich
Gan Eduard Lvovich
Garnichfelt Leonard von
Kontskaya R.F.
Kovalevsky P.P.
Le Blond Jean-Baptiste Alexander
Michetti Niccolo
Peter I, Emperor
Pinot Nicolas
Prokofiev Ivan Prokofievich
Rastrelli Bartolomeo Carlo de
Rastrelli Francesco de
Stakensсhneider Andrey Ivanovich
Usov Timofey Petrovich
Voronikhin Andrey Nikiforovich
Yakovlev Ivan Egorovich
Zemtsov Mikhail Grigorievich

Успенский А. И. Новые документы к истории петергофских дворцов и фонтанов в XVIII в. // Худож. сокровища России, 1902
Дубяго Т. В. Русские регулярные сады и парки. Л., 1963

The subject Index
Grand Cascade (Peterhof)
Mon Plaisir Palace (Peterhof)