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Entries / Oktyabrskaya Railway

Oktyabrskaya Railway

Categories / City Services/Transportation/Railway Stations, Railway Transport

OKTYABRSKAYA RAILWAY runs across Leningrad, Vologda, Moscow, Murmansk, Novgorod, Pskov, and Tver Regions and the Republic of Karelia. The total length of the network is 10.4 thousand km. The company office is located in St. Petersburg at 2 Ostrovskogo Square. The main railway junction hubs are located in St. Petersburg (Sortirovochny Moskovsky and Shushary), Khovrino (Moscow), and Petrozavodsk. The core of the present-day Oktyabrskaya Railway is the 2-track line between St. Petersburg and Moscow, opened on 13 November 1851 (Nikolaevskaya Railway since 1855, part of the Main Russian Railways Society; an independent railway since 1895; known by its present-day name since 1923). The following lines were later added to Oktyabrskaya Railway: in 1922 - Tsarskoselskaya Railway (opened on 11 November 1837; since 1900 - a part of Moscow - Vindavo - Rybinskaya Railway, completed by 1899) and Petrograd network of Moscow - Vindavo - Rybinskaya Railway; in 1929 – the Russian part of St. Petersburg - Warsaw Railway (opened in 1862; part of the Main Russian Railways Society, independent since 1895; member of North-West Railways Union since 1907), Baltic (Peterhofskaya) Line (opened in 1864; united with Pskovo-Rizhskaya Railway in 1893; a part of North-West Railways in 1907-29), Irinovskaya and Primorskaya Railways (opened in 1893-94), and Kirovskaya Railway (in 1935). In 1940 some districts of the railway that used to belong to Finland were added (e.g., Beloostrov - Luzhaika spur). Murmanskaya Railway was added in 1950, and in 1953 the Railway included all the spurs of the Leningrad railroad founded in 1947 (Leningrad - Narva, Leningrad - Pytalovo, Leningrad -Suschevo, Leningrad - Mga, Leningrad - Ust-Luga). The St. Petersburg - Moscow line (645 km) was built under supervision of engineers P.P. Melnikov and N.O. Kraft. The Russian school of Railroad Builders was shaped during the construction period. The rail gauge width of 1524 mm was accepted as standard for all major Russian lines. St. Petersburg has Baltiysky, Vitebsky, Moskovsky, Finlyandsky, and Ladozhsky Railways (see respective entries). Constructive works, such as bridges, crossovers, flyovers, viaducts, and conduit pipes were built according to the project and under the guidance of engineers D.I. Zhuravsky, N.A. Belelyubsky, et al. The first trains were made at Alexandrovsky Mechanic Plant (founded in 1825, today known as Proletarsky Plant and Electrovagonoremontny Plant). Oktyabrskaya Railway also serves commuter trains (since 1933) and diesel trains (since 1954). In 1962 the line was completely electrified. In 1931 Krasnaya Strela, the first passenger express train traveled from Leningrad to Moscow, and in 1984 ER-200 passenger express train was added, cutting the time en route to 4.5 hours. Since 2000 Oktyabrskaya Railway uses N80, VL, and ER commuter trains, and M62 and TE diesel operated trains. A large-scale reconstruction of the line took place in 1996-2001, adding state-of-the-art overpasses, bridges, depots and services and repair bases for rolling stock, and a seamless track with reinforced roadbed. Locomotive engines were fitted with automatic signalling system and the line was equipped with new tonal automatic blocking system. By 2003 the main section of Oktyabrskaya Railway (between St. Petersburg and Moscow) was ready for high-speed train traffic (travelling at 200-250 km/h). During World War II (1941-45) Oktyabrskaya Railway was a part of the Road of Life and the Road of Victory (Shlisselburg - Polyany spur), providing the besieged Leningrad with supplies. The Museum of Oktyabrskaya Railway opened in 1979. In 1999 St. Peter&Paul Church was restored at Lyuban Railway Station. The church had been originally built in 1867 by architect K.A. Ton, with P.P. Melnikov’s financial support. In 1901 the management of Nikolaevskaya Railway declared the church the official memorial church of the railway.

References: Августынюк А. И., Гвоздев М. Первая магистраль. Л., 1951; Уродков С. А. Петербурго-Московская железная дорога: История стр-ва (1842-1851 гг.). Л., 1951; Федоров В. С. Магистраль имени Октября: Октябрьской ордена Ленина ж. д. - 125 лет. Л., 1976; Магистраль имени Октября. М., 1990; От Царскосельской до Октябрьской: История. Развитие. Перспективы. СПб., 2003.

V. E. Pavlov.

Belelyubsky Nikolay Apollonovich
Kraft N.O.
Melnikov Pavel Petrovich
Ton Konstantin Andreevich
Zhuravsky Dmitry Ivanovich

Ostrovsky Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 2

Уродков С. А. Петербурго-Московская железная дорога: История стр-ва (1842-1851 гг.). Л., 1951
Ковальчук В. М. Дорога победы осажденного Ленинграда: Ж.-д. магистраль Шлиссельбург - Поляны в 1943 г. Л., 1984
Августынюк А., Гвоздев М. Первая магистраль. Л., 1951
Федоров В. С. Магистраль имени Октября: Октябрьской ордена Ленина ж. ж. - 125 лет. Л., 1976
Магистраль имени Октября. М., 1990
От Царскосельской до Октябрьской: История. Развитие. Перспективы. СПб., 2003

The subject Index
Baltiysky Railway Station
Vitebsky Railway Station
Moskovsky Railway Station
Finlyandsky Railway Station
Proletarsky Zavod, Manufacturing Association
Krasnaya Strela High-class Service Train
Road of Life
Road of Victory
Oktyabrskaya Railroad Museum
Tsarskoselskaya Railway


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