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Entries / Izhora Plants

Izhora Plants

Categories / Economy/Industry

IZHORA PLANTS (1 Lenina Avenue, Kolpino), an open joint-stock company, which was founded in 1992. It originated from the Menshikov Izhora Sawmill, built in the early 18th century at the Izhora River. In 1712 sawmill was transferred under the control of the Admiralty, and supplied wood to St. Petersburg dockyards. The production was moved downstream by order of Tsar Peter the Great in 1719, and a new sawmill was founded in 1722 (the date is celebrated as the date of foundation of the Izhora Plants). An anchor plant and a copper plant were incorporated as a part of the future Admiralty Plant. By the late 18th century a pressing plant, a hammer plant and other plants were built. The Izhora Plant was reconstructed according to the project by architect V.I. Hastie and engineer K.K. Gascoigne (a dam on the Izhora River and the 19th century building of the plant’s directorate have been preserved to this day). From 1803 to 1806 the plants produced anchors, anchor chains, iron and copper boilers, ship lights, pomps and other products for navy purposes. The production of guns started in 1806, the first steam engine was made in 1810, the Skory paddle steamer, one of the first in Russia, was built in 1816. From 1818 to 1858 there was a nautical instruments workshop on the Izhora Plants (manufacturing compasses, barometers, thermometers, etc.). In the 1860s Izhora Plants were reconstructed again, in 1866 the first armour plates were made here with the use of the milling method for the first time in Russia, a steel-smelting workshop was built in 1892, a new armour plant - in 1910, a press with the capacity of 10,000 tons power was installed in 1912. Armour and shipbuilding steel were the main products of the plant until 1917. A separate steam electric plant was built to supply the plants with electric power. Barges, launches, mine boats and torpedo boats, and first Russian trawlers (1910) were constructed at Izhora Plants ship-houses. Balloon-cars and other construction details for three aerostats were made in 1912. Izhra Plants earned the honor of having their own flag for their achievements in fleet development in 1908. The production of missiles, shells, mortars, flame guns, dirigibles and armoured cars was mastered during the years of WWI. In 1919 6 armoured trains and 44 armoured cars were produced at the plant. In the 1920-30s the plant was turned into a comprehensive metallurgical and machine-building company. It was here that drilling tools were produced for the first time in the USSR in 1929; the first Soviet blooming was made in 1931. The plant started producing drilling machines, press and forging equipment, cisterns and other tools. In the autumn of 1941 the front line was only 4 km away from the plant, and the workers of the plant formed a number of volunteer detachments, which participated in the defence of Kolpino (see Izhora Battalion). A part of equipment was evacuated to the Urals, Siberia and to other Leningrad companies, where Izhora workers repaired and constructed military equipment. The plant produced tank armour, ship gun turrets, armour piercers, ammunition for artillery rocket launchers М-13 and М-31 and other military equipment. In 1941-44 the buildings of the plant were strongly damaged during bombardment and air strikes (soon after lifting the siege they were restored). In 1948-89 the plant was named after A. A. Zhdanov. Manufacturing of new steel grades, cycloid propulsion units for river and sea vessels, adjustable pitch propellers for fishing boats, mine excavators, chemical industry equipment was organised at the plant in the 1950s. Since 1957 Izhora Plants have been a major supplier of nuclear power station equipment (which was installed at 47 blocks of nuclear power stations of Russia, Ukraine, Finland, Iran, India, and China). In 1976-92 the plant was named Izhorsky Zavod production enterprise, since 1998 it became a part of United Machinery Plants (URALMASH-IZHORA group) OJSC, and produced equipment for metallurgy and mineral resource companies. The new products include containers for nuclear waste, and products for experimental programs in the field of high energy physics.

References: Сборник кратких сведений по морскому ведомству. Вып. 9: Ижорский завод. СПб., 1908; Ижор. з-д: В 3 ч. Л., 1974-1988; Бурим Л. Д., Ефимова Г. А. Ижорские заводы: Ист. очерки. СПб., 1997; Бурим Л. Д., Ефимова Г. А., Лопатенко Н. Л. "Один ответствовать должен...": Очерки о директорах Ижор. з-дов. СПб., 2001.

L. D. Burim.

Gascoigne Karl Karlovich (Charles)
Hastie Vasily Ivanovich (William)
Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, Gracious Prince
Peter I, Emperor
Zhdanov Andrey Alexandrovich

Lenina Ave/Kolpino, town, house 1

Ижорский завод: В 3 ч. Л., 1974-1988
Бурим Л. Д., Ефимова Г. А. Ижорские заводы: Ист. очерки. СПб., 1997
Сборник кратких сведений по морскому ведомству: Вып. 9: Ижорский завод. СПб., 1908
Бурим Л. Д., Ефимова Г. А., Лопатенко Н. Л. "Один ответствовать должен...": Очерки о директорах Ижор. з-дов. СПб., 2001

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Izhora Battalion